Principles, Definitions and Model Rules of European Private Law

Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR)


Prepared by the

Study Group on a European Civil Code

and the 

European Research Group on Existing EC Private Law (Acquis Group)

Based in part on a revised version of the Principles of European Contract Law


Edited by

Christian von Bar, Eric Clive and Hans Schulte-Nölke


Hugh Beale, Johnny Herre, Jérôme Huet, Peter Schlechtriem†, Matthias Storme, Stephen Swann, Paul Varul, Anna Veneziano and Fryderyk Zoll

FINAL Outline Edition 1-1-2009:

ERRATA in the outline edition corrected in the full edition

II-3:105 (4): consumer > other party
III-3:710 (2) (a) & (h) : + other assets
III-5:206 : original > new
IVF: 1-106 (7) : II-1:109 > III-1:109
VIII-6:302: third person > other person
IX-3:101 (1)(b): those assets > that asset
IX-5:401 (2) Article > paragraph


(Interim Outline Edition 1-1-2008:, revised in the final edition)

see also articles by M.E. Storme @