Stephan Parmentier

Stephan Parmentier
Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC)
Herbert Hooverplein 10 - bus 3418
3000 Leuven
lokaal: 02.60

tel: +32 16 32 51 15 of +32 16 3 25 300
fax: +32 16 3 25 463
GSM: 00498309588
Studies hoger onderwijs Periode Instelling
PhD in Law "The Implementation of International Human Rights Norms. A Case Study of the Individual Complaint Procedure under the European Convention on Human Rights", under the supervision of Em. Prof. L. Huyse (promotor) and Prof. P. Lemmens (co-promotor) 1997 KU Leuven
Master of Arts in Sociology (1987) magna cum laude (4.00 G.P.A.); Minor: Sociology of Law 1985-1987 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities, Department of Sociology, U.S.A.
Licentiate in Sociology magna cum laude (sociology of law, sociology of labour) 1987 KU Leuven
Thesis in Sociology of Law summa cum laude (1987): "The Velvet Glove. Alternative Dispute Resolution in the United States. A Critical Appraisal." (English) 1987 KU Leuven
Licentiate in Law magna cum laude (international law, criminal law, labour law) 1983 KU Leuven
Candidate in Political Science cum laude 1982 KU Leuven
Candidate in Law cum fructu 1980 State University of Ghent, Belgium
Loopbaan Periode Instelling
Board Member, Leuven Centre for Global Governance Studies 2007 - ... KU Leuven
Head, Department of Criminal Law and Criminology 2005 - ... KU Leuven
Associate Professor, teaching courses in the fields of Sociology of Crime, Law, and Human Rights in the second-third-fourth year of criminology, the fourth-fifth year of law, and in the post-graduate Master’s programme in European Criminology 1997 - ... KU Leuven
Academic Secretary, Faculty of Law 2000 - 2005 KU Leuven
Director, Law and Society Institute 2000 - 2005 KU Leuven
Assistant Professor, research under the supervision of Em. Prof. L. Huyse on the reform of the Belgian judicial system, and comparative research on the protection of human rights in regional systems 1996 - 1997 KU Leuven
Assistant Director in charge of international relations 1990 - 1996 KU Leuven
Assessor and Representative of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 1992 - 1993 Standing Refugee Appeals Board, Brussels
Researcher in project of the Research Council K.U.Leuven about "Deregulation as the Extension of Self-Regulation. A Sociological and Legal Analysis of the Tensions Between 'Private Order' and 'Legal Order'", under the supervision of Em. Prof. L. Huyse 1988 - 1990 KU Leuven
Research Assistant on "Alternative Dispute Resolution in the United States" to the late Prof. J. Clark, Director Centre for Conflict and Change 1986 University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, U.S.A
Onderzoekservaring Periode
Coördinator onderzoekslijn 1: Politieke criminaliteit, mensenrechten en menselijke veiligheid 2007 - ...
Post-traumatic Integration - Low-level Psychosocial Support and Intervention for Refugees 11/2017 - 10/2019
"Peacemaking circles" implementeren in een Europese context 11/2011 - 08/2013
with extended research stays at the Centre for Criminology, University of Oxford ( (February-May 2007) and the Centre for European Law, University of New South Wales, Sydney ( (July-August 2007) for research on “Mass Abuse and Victimisation in Post-Conflict Situations: A Victim’s Perspective” 2006 - 2007
Université de Montréal, Departement de Criminologie (Montreal, Canada) ( collaborateur associé du Centre International pour la Criminologie Comparée (CICC) 2004 - ...
University of New South Wales, Faculty of Law (Sydney, Australia) ( visiting scholar at the Centre for European Law for research on “The Right to Reparation for Injustices against Aboriginals”; promotors: Prof. M. Krygier & Prof. A. Czarnota 2002
Dutch Research School on Human Rights, Utrecht: member of the jury for the Max Van der Stoel Prize of the Best Doctoral Dissertation and the Best Master Thesis in the Field of Human Rights, awarded at Tilburg University ( 2001 - ...
King Baudouin Foundation, Brussels ( scientific secretary to the Commission “Citizen, Law and Society”, entrusted with the task to undertake a future-oriented reflection about the relationship between citizens, law and society under the chairmanship of Em. Prof. J. Van Houtte, University of Antwerp 1997 - 2001
University of Stellenbosch, Faculty of Law (South Africa): visiting scholar at the Department of Public Law for comparative research on “Regional Protection of Human Rights”; promotor: Prof. St. Van der Merwe 1997
Research Committee on Sociology of Law: chairman of the International Working Group on Sociology of Human Rights 1991 - ...
Member of the Board of the Research Committee 1993 - 2001
supervisor of several doctoral dissertations in the fields of human rights, criminology, and sociology of law 1997 - ...
Supervisor of some 100 theses at the K.U.Leuven for the degrees of licentiate in criminology, licentiate in sociology, Master of Arts in European Criminology, European Master in Human Rights and Democratisation, and Master in Conflict and Sustainable Peace 1997 - ...
3 theses awarded with the prize for the best thesis by the Flemish-Dutch Association for the Sociology of Law 2000 - 2006
Promotor and co-promotor of several research projects in the fields of human rights, sociology of law, and criminology; received funding, i.a., from the Flemish Fund for Scientific Research (FWO), the Belgian Office for Scientific, Technical and Cultural Affairs (OSTC), the Research Council of the K.U.Leuven, the Belgian Ministry of Justice, the King Baudouin Foundation in Brussels, the Dutch Fund for Scientific Research (NWO) and the European Commission 1990 - ...
Onderwijservaring Periode
University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia ( invitation as visiting professor for the course on “Human Rights in Europe” 2008
Inleiding in de sociologie en criminologische sociologie 2007 - 2008
Criminologie en mensenrechten 2007 - 2008
Political crimes and transitional justice 2007 - 2008
International Institute for Sociology of Law, Oñati, Spain ( visiting professor for the course on “Transitional Justice and Human Rights” in the programme of Master's in the Sociology of Law 2007
Medebegeleider voor onderwijs in het domein van K.U.Leuven, Faculty of Law: member of the Organising Committee for the organisation of the “Essentials Course on Transitional Justice” and the “Essentials Course on Transitional Justice – II”, three-to-four-day intensive courses covering the themes, mechanisms, and case studies on transitional justice, in close collaboration with the International Centre for Transitional Justice ( 2006 - ...
Sociology of law (4th and 5th year of law, and 4th year of criminology) 2000 - ...
University of Ghent & Free University of Brussels, Faculties of Law: representative of the K.U. Leuven in the Interuniversity Contact Group for the exchange project “The Rule of Law and South Africa: Human Rights For and By South Africa” (Prof. J. Vande Lanotte & Prof. L. Vény), in collaboration with the University of the Western Cape, funded by the Ministry of the Flemish Community, Department of Education 1999 - 2001
European Cooperation in the Field of Criminal Justice and Crime Prevention (with Prof. D. Van Daele) (Master's in European Criminology) 1999 - 2007
K.U.Leuven, Faculty of Law: responsible for the international student and teacher exchanges in criminology under the SOCRATES programme of the European Union (October 2001–December 2006); member of the Council for International Relations of the Faculty of Law (October 2001–December 2006); member of the Steering Committee for the “Master’s in European Criminology” 1998 - 2007
Foundations of sociology of crime (2nd year of criminology) 1997 - ...
Organisational methods of criminological intervention (3rd year of criminology) 1997 - 2005
Change management (3rd year of criminology) 1997 - 2005
Recent developments in criminal policy (with Prof. E. Weitekamp) 1997 - 2007
European Cooperation in the Field of Criminal Justice and Crime Prevention (with Prof. D. Van Daele) (Master's in European Criminology) 1999 - 2007
Political Crimes and State Violations of Human Rights (with Prof. E. Weitekamp) (Master's in European Criminology) 1997 - ...
K.U.Leuven, Service for University Education: diploma “Training Course for University Teachers” 1997 - 1998
K.U.Leuven, Faculty of Law: co-organisor (with Prof. P. Lemmens, K.U.Leuven) of the “Summer Course in Human Rights”, in collaboration with the Dutch Research School in Human Rights, Utrecht 1997 - ...
International Institute for Sociology of Law, Oñati, Spain: visiting professor for course “Sociology of Human Rights” in the programme of Master's in The Sociology of Law 1994 - 1995
Forum functies
Lid van de Advisory Board van het Centre for Criminology in Oxford
Relevante websites



query=user:U0016825 year:[1999 TO 2019] &institution=lirias&from=1&step=20&sort=scdate
1 tot 20 van 242 resultaten
Items per pagina 10 |20 |50
Sorteren recentste eerst |auteur |titel |populariteit
  • Fujiwara, H; 2019. The International Criminal Investigation and the Formation of Collective Memory in Post-Conflict Societies - an Analysis of Investigation Processes and an Epistemology of War Crimes..
    Following the establishment of the International Criminal Tribunals forthe Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and Rwanda (ICTR) in 1993 and 1994 respectively, remarkable developments have been made in the evolution of a system of international criminal justice. This system is essentially comprised of the following 4 elements; 1) the investigation of international crimes, 2) the prosecution of those responsible for the alleged crimes, 3)the trial, and 4) the enforcement of sentences. The international crimes referred to are typically the crimes listed in Articles 2, 3,4 and 5 of the ICTY Statute. Similarly, the international investigationreferred to are those conducted by an international institution, e.g., ICTY, ICTR, and International Criminal Court (ICC). It does not include international judicial cooperation between various national investigative organs, e.g. Interpol. There have been numerous discussions and articles written outlining how substantive law has definedthe elements of international crimes, trial procedures, and enforcementof sentences. Little has been discussed, however, about the process of investigation into international crimes, how to identify those who are most responsible for such serious crimes, and how to successfully prosecute them. In the absence of clear theoretical guidelines, a national criminal investigation model has been used as an analogy. This thesis asserts that the use of an analogy of a national criminal investigation model for an international criminal investigation is conceptually erroneous. Firstly, the nature of international crimes differs fundamentally from any of the analogous domestic crimes, e.g. organised crime. Secondly, an international criminal investigation is conducted on an international plane where the principles of international law, which are essentially consensual and non-compelling, prevail. In contrast, a typical national crime investigation operates on the basis of principles of domesticcriminal law, which are essentially mandatory and compelling. An alternative model will be proposed for an effective and appropriate international criminal investigation. Hence the first main theme of this thesis isto examine the theoretical foundations of international criminal investigations from a legalistic and structural point of view. From an extra-legal point of view, such as sociology, international criminal investigation is characterised as a process of the social construction of meaning. Certain acts are labelled and defined as international crimes as a result of information collected, interpreted, and constructed by international law-enforcement institutions acting as part of the international criminal justice process. What are often understood and referred to as "the facts" of an international criminal case are the result of the investigative work performed by agents of investigative institutions. This thesis takes the view that manner in which certain acts are defined and explained as international crimes, do not inhere within the acts themselves, butare the results of social production, namely the international criminal investigation process. In line with this, apart from establishing individual criminal liabilities, the purpose of international criminalinvestigations is to provide a narrative or explanation of the incidents in accordance with the given legal framework, as to 1) whether the acts concerned are international crimes or not?, 2) who the victims are?, 3) who the perpetrators are?, and 4) who did what to whom? The narrative of the incidents constructed in this way is expected to serve as a basisof collective memory shared by wider communities that is deeply affected by heinous atrocities in the past.[1] The construction of a narrative account of the event is central in defining public understandings of what happened and thus how it is to be collectively remembered. The accountconstructed during the international investigation process shall, of course, be contested during a trial, but if proven, it then becomes an officially sanctioned record of the past. In the discourses about restorative justice or peace-building in the post-conflict societies, the criminal investigation has been categorized as a form of retributive justice. Hence little has been discussed about the potential role of criminal investigations from the viewpoint of restorative justice. This thesis asserts that the role of international criminal investigations in post-conflict societies goes much beyond the traditional function of criminal investigation, i.e., the establishment of forensic truth. The potential role of international criminal investigation encompasses the promotion of personal or narrative truth, and the social or dialogue truth.[2] Re-examining the significance of international criminal investigation from a restorative justice point of view would allow it to be placed properly within the context of the reconstruction of a post-conflict society. Against this backdrop, the second main theme of thisthesis is to analyse the dynamics of international criminal investigation to assess whether it successfully accomplishes the task of creating acollective memory of post-conflict societies. It is important to outline the investigative process, procedures, and practices that contribute to how a situation becomes defined as an international crime and an individual is identified as a suspect. To this end, the thesis seeks to examine a theoretical framework addressing the following questions: 1) what types of facts are collected and discovered during the process of international criminal investigations, 2) what is the process through which thefacts are interpreted and constructed to define a certain event as an international crime, and 3) what are the interactions between international investigations and the formation of a collective memory of post-conflict societies. Finally, as a case study, the thesis compares two different international investigation models, namely, Nuremberg-Tokyo Trial model and ICTY-ICTR model, outlining the historical evolution between the two models as well as examining the merits and demerits of these models from the viewpoint of collective memory formation. Key Research Problems History · Historical development of international investigations into large-scale international crimes, e.g. Nuremberg/Tokyo Trial, ICTY/ICTR, and ICC. Legal-framework · Applicable law/norms governing the course of investigations. · Distinguishing features from national criminal investigations. · Distinction from other types of international inquiries into large-scale violations of human rights, e.g. fact-finding missions, truth commissions, etc. · Powers and obligations that international criminal investigating bodies should possess to assist with the gathering of evidence. · The challenges and difficulties to conduct on-site investigations in non-cooperative States. · The extent of State and other international cooperation with international investigative bodies, especially in terms of obtaining information and evidence in the possession or control of States, and other non-State actors. Investigation Process (extra-legal analysis) · Methodology and problems involved in investigating and proving international crimes. · Optimal organisational structure of the international criminal investigative bodies. · The appropriateness of prioritising the leadership investigations and prosecutions of international crimes. · Decision making process of investigative institutions. On Collective Memory · Significance of collective memoryfor reconstruction of post-conflict societies. · The merits and demerits of retributivejustice in the post-conflict society. · Difference of records obtained through international criminal investigation and historiographical records. · Different types of truth, e.g. a) factual or forensic truth, b) personal or narrative truth,c) social / dialogue truth, and d) healing or restorative truth. · Distinction between different types of truth established through the international criminal investigations and the truth commissions. · Significance of international criminalinvestigation from the viewpoint of restorative justice. Methodology and Source · Comparative analysis highlighting historical developments of the international criminal investigation and to distinguish between international criminal investigations and national or other types of investigations. · Analysis of legal material such as substantive law, procedural law, proceedings and rulings of the ICTY/ICTR. · Analysis of epistemological discourses to develop a conceptual framework on "how to understand and prove international crimes?" · Analysis of sociological discourses on "social-constructivism" and "symbolic interactionism" and their application to international criminal investigations. · Analysis of the practice of ICTY/ ICTR as to how interviews, documents, forensic evidence etc. are utilized in order to manufacture a narrative of crimes. · Analysis of official court transcripts of the ICTY / ICTR in relation to investigative matters, such as 1) source (authenticity) of evidence, 2) type of evidence · Analyses of public records e.g. press release, open source information, etc. in relation to the investigative activities and strategies of the Office of Prosecutor of the ICTY and ICTR. · Analysis of theories on domestic crimeinvestigation. · Analysis of national criminal investigation theory and its applicationto international criminal investigations. [1] For example, United Nations Security Council Resolution 955 states "(contribution) to the process of national reconciliation" as one of the two main purposes for the establishment of the ICTR. See S/Res/955. [2] TheSouth African Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) distinguished four notions of truth, namely 1) factual or forensic truth, meaning the evidence obtained and corroborated through reliable procedures; 2) personal and narrative truth, meaning the many stories that individuals told about their experiences under Apartheid; 3) social or dialogue truth, established through interaction, discussion and debate; and 4) healing and restorative truth, meaning the truth that places facts and their meaningwithin the context of human relationships (TRC Report, 1998) as cited in Stephan Parmentier, "Global Justice in the Aftermath of Mass Violence. The Role of the International Criminal Court in dealing with Political Crimes" at 205.

  • chapter
    Rauschenbach, Mina; Parmentier, Stephan; Van Craen, Maarten; 2019. Symbolic Forms of Transitional Justice for Social Restoration in Bosnia- Herzegovina?. Healing and Peacebuilding after War: Transforming Trauma in Bosnia & Herzegovina. Publisher: Routledge

  • chapter
    Van Craen, Maarten; Parmentier, Stephan; Rauschenbach, Mina; 2019. Good cops, bad cops: Why do police officers treat citizens (dis)respectfully?. Police-Citizen Relations Across the World: Comparing sources and contexts of trust and legitimacy; 2019; pp. 266 - 283 Publisher: Routledge; oxon

  • journal-article
    Destrooper, T; Parmentier, S; 2018. Gender-Aware and Place-Based Transitional Justice in Guatemala: Altering the Opportunity Structures for Post-Conflict Women’s Mobilization. Social and Legal Studies; 2018; Vol. 27; iss. 3; pp. 323 - 344
    © 2017, © The Author(s) 2017. Place-based approaches to transitional justice, which foreground victim participation, have become increasingly popular in the last decade. The assumption is that these approaches enhance legitimacy, increase the local relevance of interventions, and empower victims. However, the causal mechanisms by which this alleged empowerment takes place, are not usually studied in great detail. This article examines whether altering the opportunity structures of (germinal) civil society organizations is one of the ways by which this empowering effect might take hold. The authors argue that in Guatemala, the transitional justice process, and in particular the truth commission, did indeed significantly alter the opportunity structures of grassroots indigenous women’s groups, most notably by providing these groups with support to develop their own agenda and with access to ‘elite allies’. Yet the fieldwork performed hitherto would also advise against treating localized and participatory approaches to transitional justice as a panacea, for even if a genuine bottom-up approach is promising, the ongoing institutionalization of the field of transitional justice makes adequate implementation of such an approach difficult; and especially in cases where victims face intersectional discrimination positive effects may be slow to materialize.

  • Odak, Stipe; 2018. Religion in no man’s land: An interdisciplinary research into the role of religious leaders in peacebuilding processes, the case of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
    This project proposes an analysis of the role played by religion and religious leaders in the processes of conflict transformation, with a special focus on the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Religion is frequently criticized as one of the principal sources of violent conflicts. However, recent studies on transitional justice and conflict resolution emphasize the importance of religion for achieving and maintaining peace. This project questions the scope and limits of religious traditions as potential sources of pro-social values that can be effective in situations where traditional political mechanisms fail to bring change. Special emphasis is put on the role of Catholic, Muslim and Orthodox religious leaders in Bosnia and Herzegovina, who are the major moral authorities and opinion makers in their respective communities. Therefore, the aim of this research is to discover how aforementioned religious leaders perceive conflicts, their resolution, and the role of religion in those processes. Those findings can serve as valuable links between theory and practice of religiously inspired peace-actions. The project combines theological, sociological and political perspectives, which will be used as a mutual guidance and corrective. The research will be developed through a set of in-depth interviews which will be transcribed, analyzed, and critically evaluated.

  • Zinsstag, Estelle; Aertsen, Ivo; Walgrave, Lode; Fonseca Rosenblatt, Fernanda; Parmentier, Stephan; 2018. The International Journal of Restorative Justice: new horizons for independent research and development. The International Journal of Restorative Justice; 2018; Vol. 1; iss. 1; pp. 3 - 8
    Publisher: Eleven International Publishing
  • Daems, Tom; Parmentier, Stephan; 2018. Een kwarteeuw Europees toezicht op vrijheidsbeneming in België. Europa waakt: vrijheidsbeneming onder toezicht van het Europese antifoltercomité; 2018; Vol. 37; pp. 1 - 6 Publisher: Universitaire Pers Leuven; Leuven

  • chapter
    Parmentier, Stephan; Vanduffel, Laura; 2018. De detentie en verwijdering van vreemdelingen door de ogen van het CPT. Europa waakt. Vrijheidsbeneming onder toezicht van het Europese antifoltercomité; 2018; Vol. 37; pp. 197 - 212 Publisher: Universitaire Pers Leuven; Leuven

  • book
    2018. Europa waakt: vrijheidsbeneming onder toezicht van het Europese antifoltercomité. Publisher: Universitaire Pers Leuven; Leuven

  • chapter
    Parmentier, Stephan; Rauschenbach, Mina; Van Craen, Maarten; 2018. New Epistemologies for Confronting International Crimes: Developing the IDP Approach to Transitional Justice. Understanding the Age of Transitional Justice: Narratives in Historical Perspective.; 2018; pp. 75 - 93 Publisher: Rutgers University Press

  • Saeed, Huma; 2017. Economic-State Crime and Transformative Justice in Afghanistan: An analysis at the Intersection of Transitional Justice and Criminology.
    In cases of protracted internal strife and armed conflict, when during several decades, political transitions and regime changes follow one another; standard approaches to transitional justice are bound to fail, theoretically and practically. Things may get even more intractable if the elite presiding over the new regime, installed and maintained into power by the might and resources of the ``international community,'' is among the worst perpetrators of abuses and continues to rule as kleptocrats. Afghanistan is one of these historical situations. In order to start answering the main theoretical and empirical questions about such intellectually demanding cases, this dissertation marshals and combines two fields: an alternative discourse on transitional justice and critical criminology. Looking through the prism of crime and justice, this doctoral dissertation offers an analysis of socio-economic harm during periods of violent conflict and transition combining empirical research and an interdisciplinary framework. The thesis discusses socio-economic harm as a form of state crime and economic crime from a critical criminological perspective. The dynamic questions arising from the political and institutional changes in periods of violent conflict, in particular in relation to war victims, are addressed adopting the concept of transformative justice, an emerging and alternative perspective in the field of transitional justice. Empirically grounded in fieldwork conducted in Kabul, Afghanistan, in 2013 and 2014, the research presents perceptions of victims and local experts as regards to the harm borne by victims in relation to the loss of land and property during four decades of violent conflict in Afghanistan. Using a Case Study method, 56 semi-structured interviews were conducted with 102 participants, most of them displaced by war, returnees and victims of land grabs. Experts' views, such as those in civil society and public officials, served as an important conduit through which information could be confirmed or explanation could be sought, in particular in relation to land grab, which has become a defining feature of post-Taliban Afghanistan. Based on a thorough analysis of the theoretical and empirical components, the thesis offers and supports two main arguments. First, certain types of socio-economic harm, such as those borne by victims whose perceptions are reflected in this thesis, can amount to economic-state crime, a framework which this thesis has developed based on existing criminological typologies, to demonstrate the symbiotic relationship between economic crime and state crime in contexts of weak, failed and corrupt institutions where the ruling elite is a part and parcel in committing such crimes. This argument has particularly been demonstrated in relation to land grabbing. Second, in transitional contexts where, on the one hand, national and international political will does not allow the implementation of transitional justice, and on the other, a majority of victim population do not believe they can exercise their agency due to their nescience and dire socio-economic conditions, transformative justice can serve as a pre-condition for the implementation of transitional justice. The thesis concludes that transitional justice and critical criminology, contrary to their apparent disconnect, can mutually inform and reinforce each other. This, nevertheless, requires transitional justice scholars to look deeper into the criminological literature and expertise such as its methodologies, theories and concepts in relation to state crime and economic crime in particular. Likewise, critical criminologists need to come out of their ``comfort zone'' and use their critical lens in situations of violent conflict and post-conflict, beyond the established liberal democracies, to be able to engage more with the field of transitional justice.

  • Callens, Marloes; 2017. The interorganisational trust process in the Flemish judicial youth care chain: Perceived trustworthiness, its inputs, and willingness to exchange information.
    This research project is aimed at exploring the process of interorganisational trust in the juvenile justice system. When judicial care for a minor is warranted, several independent agencies need to cooperate to protect a child from an unsafe upbringing. The success of this collaboration depends greatly on the quality of the decisionmaking and information sharing troughout the chain. The aim is to discover what enables actors in these relations characterised by high dependency but also high autonomy to trust each other during interactions, and what the consequences are when there is trust present.

  • Van Damme, Ellen; Parmentier, Stephan; Hume, Mo; 2017. Girls and gangs in Central America: reflections from the field. Publisher: European Society of Criminology
    The subject of this PhD research is the role of women in and around gangs in Central America. Our main research question is ‘What is the role and agency of girls/women in and around gangs?’. For this research we implement a qualitative methodology, starting from an Informed Grounded Theory perspective, conducting (in-depth) interviews as well as focus groups and (participatory) observations. The study involves several field researches: one three-month exploratory field research (March – May 2017), and two six-month in-depth field researches (2018 & 2019). After the exploratory field research we decided to focus on Honduras. We will discuss the reason of this choice, along with other experiences from the field. During the exploratory field research over 30 interviews were conducted, as well as focus groups and observations. Notwithstanding the focus of this preliminary research was on experts in the field, we also had the opportunity to visit female and male prisons, talk to (former) gang members, and participate (as observers) in some activities with youngsters/prisoners/(ex) gang members. Although the traditional male-female roles (as experienced in the region) can also be retrieved within the gang, women are likewise involved in criminal activities such as extortion, drug and weapon trafficking, and assassination.

  • Aciru, Monica; 2017. Transitional justice in practice : truth commissions and policies of victim reparations.
    Over the years, truth commissions have become an appealing mechnism for dealing with large scale human rights violations. One of the reasons for this is that they avail more opportunities for dealing with the many shades of grey that characterise most conflicts. The mandates have also evolved beyond establishing the truth. It is now common for truth commissions to propose measures or reparations programmes for victims as part of its recommendations. However, considering that truth commissions are temporary establishments with limited time frames and restrictive mandates, what therefore is the future of the recommendations they make in the reports? To further compound this situation, there is often a considerably diminished interest in the issues they raise in the post truth commission phase. The objective of this research is to study the recommendations relating to reparations that truth commissions have issued. It examines how different stakeholders respond to the recommendations and the frameworks that have been set up (or not) to follow-up and implement specific recommendations. Two case studies, Sierra Leone Truth and Reconciliation Commission and the Ghana National Reconciliation Commission are selected. Whereas these two cases both recommended reparations for victims, different approaches for the follow-up were instituted, both in the reports and during the post truth commission phase. How is this related to the actual realities on the ground with regard to victims’ reparations? This research takes on four major issues in relation to truth commissions and reparations: the inclusion or omission of reparations in the mandate of truth commissions; the content of the recommendations (what reparation, for whom and to whom); the follow-up of the recommendations (agencies and frameworks) and, relevance of truth commissions in making recommendations for victims’ reparations. The research describes the different contexts for the inclusion of reparations within truth commissions and strategies for their implementation, and to this end, it proposes a model for studying the follow-up of recommendations on reparations made by truth commissions.

  • chapter
    Daems, T; Parmentier, S; 2017. Criminology in Belgium: Crossing borders, reaching out globally. The Handbook of the History and Philosophy of Criminology; 2017; pp. 334 - 344 Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell; Malden, MA
    © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. This chapter starts with a brief overview of the history of criminology in Belgium until the 1960s. Attention will be drawn to some important predecessors and it will discuss how the birth and early development of criminology in Belgium were closely related to the success of the doctrine of Défense sociale at the end of the 19th century. Discussion will then turn to more recent developments of criminology in Belgium and, in particular, how the discipline has become institutionalized at the major universities in Belgium. It will be argued that the successful development of criminology in post-war Belgium is closely related to the expansion of the undergraduate and postgraduate teaching programs in criminology since the 1970s. The chapter concludes with some thoughts on the characteristics of criminology in Beligium.

  • report
    Saeed, Huma; Parmentier, Stephan; 2017. When Rabbits are in Charge of Carrots…: Land grabbing, transitional justice and economic-state crime in Afghanistan. Publisher: State Crime: Journal of the International State Crime Initiative

  • Sarkin, Jeremy; Zinsstag, Estelle; Parmentier, Stephan; 2017. Critical Issues in Transitional Justice: A Sisyphean Exercise. Human Rights & International Legal Discourse; 2017; Vol. 11; iss. 1; pp. 1 - 120

    Publisher: Intersentia
  • Saeed, Huma; Parmentier, Stephan; 2017. When Rabbits are in Charge of Carrots…: Land grabbing, transitional justice and economic-state crime in Afghanistan. State Crime; 2017; Vol. 6; iss. 1; pp. 13 - 36

    Publisher: Pluto Journals
  • journal-article
    Sullo, Pietro; Herzog-Evans, Martine; Parmentier, Stephan; Boesel, Delphine; 2016. Alternatives to Prison Detention in France: much ado about law, little about criminology. Rivista di Criminologia, Vittimologia e Sicurezza; 2016; Vol. 10; iss. 3; pp. 92 - 109
    This article first sketches the political and social context in which the discussions about alternatives to detention in France are to be situated. It then analyses the existing alternatives by explaining their legal and criminological rationale and sources, and goes on providing a short evaluation of the alternatives to detention. It concludes with more information about alternatives to detention for specific categories of persons.
    Publisher: Società Italiana di Vittimologia
  • media
    Herman, Olivia; Parmentier, Stephan; Wouters, Jan; 2016. Een lichtpuntje in een jaar vol duisternis. Publisher: De Standaard