Chinese laws

[Proclamation de la République populaire de Chine]'s_Republic_of_Chinaítica_de_la_República_Popular_China
[China's political system]
[Political system]
[Le régime politique Chinois)]
[Chinas politisches System]
[Systema politico de China]
[Le système politique]
[CPC and State Organs of the PRC]
[How China is ruled]

[Das politische System der Volksrepublik China, interaktives Flash (2008)]
[Who is Who in China's in China's leadership]
[China in brief: political system & state structure]
[Chinese Politics: political system and state structure]
[China politics links; July 2007] Forces
[Political forces: CCP, PLA; February 5, 2007]
[L'Encyclopédie de l 'Agora, Dossier Chine]
[Supporting reform in China (2006)]
[Lynn Walsh, The character of the Chinese state, October 21, 2008]
[Vincent Kolo, China’s capitalist counter-revolution, December 2007]
[W.W.Zhang, Long-term outlook for China’s political reform, May 6, 2006],4,0,Charakteristika_des_politischen_Systems.html
[Sebastian Heilmann, Charakteristika des politischen Systems, 9. Februar 2006]
[Sénat, Mission effectuée en Chine du 10 au 22 septembre 2005: Le paradoxe de l'organisation politique en Chine]
[Gunter Schubert, Reforming authoritarianism in contempory China. Reflections on Pan Wei's consultative rule of law regime, Januar 2005]
[Frank N.Pieke, Contours of an anthropology of the Chinese state: political structure, agency and economic development in Rural China (2004)]
[Lianjiang Li, Political trust in rural China (2004)]
[Pete Sweeny, The carrot, the stick, and the Communist Party: Barry Naughton et al. versus Minxin Pei (2004)]
[New Beijing municipal government elected; January 20, 2003]
[Minxin Pei, China's governance crisis, September 2002]
[Jean C.Oi, Bending without breaking, The adaptability of China's political institutions, October 2000]
[Jakob Hort, Die Institutionelle Struktur der VR China und ihre Abhängigkeit von personalpolitischen Konstellationen (2000)]
[Steven Mufson, Debate blossoms In Beijing Spring, April 19,1998]
[Sebastian Heilmann, Das politische System der Volksrepublik China im Überblick (1997)
[The Communist Party of China (CPC)]
[Chart of the Central Organizations of the CPC (2003)]
[The Communist Party of the PRC: The contempory political history of the PRC]
[Zhongguo Gongchandang dishiliu jie Zhongyang Weiyuanhui]
[PRC government structure (graphic), May 4, 2004]
[Chart of the Central Organizations of the CPC; May 20, 2003]
[4 popular political jokes in Beijing]

2007 white paper - livre blanc - Weißbuch - baipishu
[Zhongguo de zhengdang zhidu]
[idem, Zhongguo de zhengdang zhidu]
[China's Political Party System & Zhongguo de zhengdang zhidu]
[China's Political Party System]
[Le système des partis politiques en Chine]

[the legislative system of China]
Le régime législatif de Chine]
[Chinese current legislation structure; September 28, 2003]
[NPC Deputy on China's socialist legal system; March 12, 2001]
[Xu Chongde, China's constitution: Guarantee for people's rights]
[Le régime législatif de Chine  (2006)]
[Susan Xue, China’s legislative system and information: An overview, July 14, 2005]
[Donald C.Clarke, The Chinese Legal System, July 4, 2005]
[Ming Wang, Human Rights Lawmaking in China: Domestic politics, international law, and international politics (2007)
[Jerome A.Cohen, Law in political transitions: Lessons from East Asia and the road ahead for China,July 26, 2005]
[Jerome Cohen, China's legal system in transition, August 15, 2005]
[Edward Cody, China amends constitution to guarantee human rights, March 14, 2004]
[Xu Chongde, China's constitution: Guarantee for people's rights]
[Stanley Lubman, Bird in a cage: Chinese law reform after twenty years, May 1, 2000]
[T.K.Chang, China: Review of 1999 legal developments and 2000 preview, December 1999]
[Fundamental legal documents of communist China (1962)]
[Thomas E. Kellogg, The death of constitutional litigation in China?, April 2, 2009]
[Nicole Schulte-Kultmann, Der Einfluss westlicher Rechtsberatung auf die Rechtsreformen in der Volksrepublik China: Zur Rolle von Akteuren und nteressen in der chinesischen-westlichen Rechtsberatung, Juli 2002]

2008 white paper - livre blanc - Weißbuch - baipishu
[Zhongguo de fazhi jianshe]
[idem, Zhongguo de fazhi jianshe]
[Zhongguo de fazhi jianshe]
[China's Efforts and Achievements in Promoting the Rule of Law]
[idem, China's Efforts and Achievements in Promoting the Rule of Law]
[idem, China's Efforts and Achievements in Promoting the Rule of Law]
L‘édification de la légalité en Chine]

STATE STRUCTURE - STRUCTURE DE L'ÉTAT - STAATSORGANE - guojia zhidu & guojia jigouépublique_populaire_de_Chine
[structure of the state]
[La structure de l'État]
[La structure de l'État (2006)]
[Die Politische Konsultativkonferenz des chinesischen Volkes]
[central state organs (chart)]
[state organs ]
[Governments on the WWW: China (PRC)]
[Regierungsstellen: Ministerien und Kommissionen, Lokalregierungen; 4. Juli 2007]
[Governments on the WWW: China (PRC)]
[heading: zhengfa junshi-falü]
[falü zhengfa ku]
[guojia jiguan & zhengfu jigou]
[ge sheng shi zhengfu jigou]
[guojia jiguan & zhengfu jigou]
[ge sheng shi zhengfu jigou]
[Staatsflagge, Staatswappen, Nationalhymne, Hauptstadt]

people's congresses - assemblées populaires - Volkskongresse - renmin daibiao dahui's_Congress's_Congress
[The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress]
[The system of People's Congress]
[The National People's Congress, March 15, 2008]
[A portrait of modern China; January 15, 2008]
[Top legislator stresses NPC system; September 17, 2004]
[Philip L. Bridgham, The National People's Congress, June 1965]
[The National People's Congress]
[Das System der Volkskongresse]
[System der Volkskongresse ist wichtiges Element des politischen Organs Chinas; 5. März 2008]
[general, electoral system, last elections, presidency of the parliament; September 1, 1992]
[Li Zi, NPC: the rule of law (2004)]
[Chao Chien-min, The National People's Congress oversight power and the role of the CCP (2003)]
[Quels sont les rapports entre l'APN et les assemblées populaires locales?]
[Welche Kompetenzen hat der NVK, &c.]
[Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (1994-2008)]
[Renda jigou (2008)]
[Zhongguo Renda Wang]

president - Président - Staatspräsident - zhuxi's_Republic_of_Chinaésident_de_la_République_populaire_de_Chineública_Popular_Chinaésidents_de_la_République_Populaire_de_Chine
[The presidency of the People's Republic of China; March 15, 2008]
[Das System des Staatspräsidenten]
[Die Staatsorgane: der Staatspräsident]

central government: state council - Conseil des affaires d'État - Staatsrat - Guowuyuan's_Republic_of_China'État_de_la_République_populaire_de_Chineública_Popular_China
[Das zentrale Verwaltungssystem]
[Das Kader (Staatsangestellten) System]
[State organs and people's organizations of the People's Republic of China]
[China to set up five new "super ministries"; March 12, 2008]
[The State Council; October 25, 2005]
[State Council & Agencies; April 27, 2005]
[The organizational structure of the State Council; May 20, 2003]
[Ministries & Commissions, &c.]
[Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Zhongyang Renmin Zhengfu menhu wangzhan]
[Dirigeants de la République populaire de Chine: Gouvernement 2003 2008]
[Dirigeants de la République populaire de Chine: Gouvernement 1998-2003]
[New government line-up in China, March 18, 1998]
[Sifabu wang (2008)]
[Waijiaobu wang (2008)]
[Shangwubu wang (2008)]

local governments - gouvernements locaux -  lokales Verwaltungssystem - difang geji renmin zhengfu
[Das lokale Verwaltungssystem]
[Dirigeants des provinces chinoises (2003)]
[Bo Zhiyue, China’s new provincial leaders: Major reshuffling before the 17th National Party Congress, March 2007]
[Ian Seckington, County leadership in China: A baseline survey, September 2007]
[local government in Asia and the Pacific, A comparative study, Country Paper: China]
[Nick Swift, Local government reforms in China are led by big cities, October 23, 2004]
[Jörn-Carsten Gottwald, Regionale Reformpolitik in China, die Modernisierung von Staat und Verwaltung, November 2002]
[Tony Saich, The blind man and the elephant: Analysing the local state in China, June 2001]
[Local Government in Asia and the Pacific, A Comparative Study, Country Paper: China]

relations between central and local governments - relations entre le gouvernement central et gouvernements locaux -  Beziehungen zwischen der Zentralregierung und den lokalen Regierungen -  zai zhongyang he dangdi zhengfu zhi jian de guanxi
(central-local links:Organizational leadership and subordination
[local government rides roughshod over the law; March 27, 2008]
[Barry Naughton, The assertive center: Beijing moves against local government control of land (2007)]
[Lai, Manhong, and Lo, Leslie Nai-Kwai, Decentralisation and the development of vocational education in China,
September 2006]
[Yongnian Zheng, Institutional economics and central-local relations in China: evolving research, September 2005]
[Chi Hung Kwan, Adjusting the fiscal relationship between central and local governments: China gropes for
centralization, while Japan heads toward decentralization
, June 27, 2003]
Yasheng Huang, The political economy of central-local relations in China: Inflation and investment controls during the reform era (1997]
[Gabriella Montinola, Yingyi Qian, and. Barry R. Weingast, Federalism, Chinese Style: The political basis for economic success in China, October 1995]

central military commission - commission militaire centrale - Zentrale Militärkommission - zhongyang junshi weiyuanhui (
[Central Military Commission of the PRC: facts & figures, foreign media reports, China official militrary news, military education and training, nuclear weapons, disarmement, China military budget, maps
, June 19, 2007]
[Central Military Commission of Chinese Communist Party]
[Central Military Commission, membership, organization chart, agencies; audio]
[Central Military Commission: state and party central military commissions; June 10,1998]
[Organizations of the CMC; October 31, 2006]
[Leah Kimmerly, Johanna Cox, Evaluating trends in Central Millitary Commission membership, January 10, 2007]
[China marks PLA's 80th birthday with grand rally, August 1, 2007]
[China's Hu reappointed military commission head after promoting new generals, October 22, 2007]
[Hu Jintao elected chairman of state Central Military Commission, March 13, 2005]
[Hu takes over as CPC military commission chief, September 19, 2004]

army - armée - Armee - renmin jiefangjun's_Liberation_Armyée_populaire_de_libérationército_Popular_de_Liberación_(China)
[composition des forces armées de l'État]
[Das Militärsystem]
[PLA's new modular force structure;
May 11, 2008]
[China Defence Today: reports]
[military:introduction, background, &c.; audio]
[Bernard D.Cole, "The People's Liberation Army-navy: ten issues, October 2000]

judiciary - appareil judiciaire - Justiz - sifa  xitong, sifa tizhi's_Republic_of_China
[China's judicial system]
[China's judiciary]
[Le système judiciaire de Chine]
[le système judiciaire]
[le système de contrôle]
[le système pénitentiaire]
[le système arbitral]
[le système de médiation]
[le système de l'indemnisation par l'État]
[La démocratie judiciaire]
[Chinas Rechtswesen (2002)]
[idem, Chinas Rechtswesen (2002)]
[World Factbook of Criminal Justice Systems: China (1993)]
[people's courts and special people's courts]
[The organization, functions and powers of the people's courts]
[Supreme People's Court]
[Supreme People's Court, view 9 biographies with career data for this institution]
[Software helps judges mete out sentences; September 7, 2006]
[Liu Li, Legal reform likely as juvenile crime rises, September 17, 2005]
[Judicial reform protects human rights; April 16, 2004]
[Criminal coercive measures standardized, April 16, 2004]
[jail system (2004)]
[Jian Fa, Förderung der Justizreform (2004)]
[Zhai Jianxiong, Judicial information of the PRC: a survey, September 30, 2002]
[China: Attacks on justice; August 27, 2002]
[Xin Chunying, Ye Ziqiang, (a.o.), China's judicial system and its reform, March 2001]

people's police - police populaire - Volkspolizei - jingcha / gong'an jiguan's_Republic_of_China
[Li Xiancui, Crime and Policing in China, September 27, 1998]
[policing in China; 2005, 2006]
[China Police 2008, exhibition, news]
[Virtual Beijing police to patrol in cyber world, August 29, 2007]
[Sarah Poulson, Virtual cops to monitor gambling, porn in China, April 16, 2007]
[Guangdong Sheng Gong'anting]
[Zhongguo diyi gong'an boke de]
[China first police blog]
[nüjingcha, video]

people's prosecutor's offices - parquets populaires- Volksstaatsanwaltschaft - renmin
[Supreme People's Procuratorate (2003)]
[introduction to the People's Procuratorates of the PRC]
[Supreme People's Procuratorate (SPP)]
[The organizational setup of the SPP; May 20, 2003]
[The Supreme People's Procuratorate; October 25, 2005]
Procurator General JIA on the status and role of China's Procuratorates in the field of criminal justice and crime prevention, April 23, 2007]
[Zuigao Renmin Jianchayuan wang]

people's courts - cours populaires- Volksgerichte - renmin fayuan's_Republic_of_China
[organes judiciaires de l'État]
[Courts: People's Courts & Special People's Courts, The Supreme People's Court, The organization, functions and powers of the People's courts]
[The organization, functions and powers of the People's courts]
[Supreme People's Court]
[court news and legal information]
[Wang Wu, Rule by law should be reinforced (Intervention from local government leaders), December 23, 2003]
[Yuwen Li, Professional Ethics of Chinese Judges, May-june 2003]
[The Supreme People's Court of the PRC; July 5, 2002]
[people's courts & special people's courts; July 5, 2002]
[Zhao Xiaoli, The two faces of the people's tribunals in rural China, March 31, 2002]
[Shanghai Youth Courts protect children's rights; September 11, 2000]
[Katherine Arms, Les tribunaux chinois ont la cote, Novembre 1999]
[court news and legal information]
[Renmin Fayuanwang]
[Zuigao Renmin Fayuan wangzhan]
[2004 Zhongguo shi jia renmin fating pingxuan]

counsel - avocat - Rechtsanwalt - lüshi
[Lawyer system]
[le système des avocats]
[das Rechtsanwaltssystem]
[Mathieu Boyer, Etre avocat en Chine]
[Thème de la semaine: Spécial Gao Zisheng; September 3, 2006]
[Chinese lawyers find new career opportunities following WTO entry, September 21, 2002]
[Li Yuwen, Avocat: une profession "florissante"?]
[l'assistance judiciaire]

[Lecture Series 2007-2008 (audio)]
[ Weifang He, The judicial system and governance in traditional China]
[Joerg Luther, Percezioni europee della sotria costituzionale cinese, October 2006]
[Weifang He, Reconstruct Chinese Legal Tradition, I (2005)]
[Weifang He, Reconstruct Chinese Legal Tradition, II (2005)]
[Bradley L.Milkwick, Feeling for rocks while crossing the river: The gradual evolution of Chinese law, June 2005]
[A three-part discussion of the Chinese legal tradition: Legalism and Confucianism, Chinese detectives, Chinese perceptions of rule of law, July 2004]
[Wang Weiguo, Some main characteristics of the traditional legal culture of China [2004)]
[Dominiek Delporte, Precedents and the Dissolution of Marriage Agreements in Ming China (1368–1644). Insights from the "Classified Regulations of the Great Ming," Book 13 (2003)]
[Adrian Davis, Fraternity and Fratricide in Late Imperial China (2000)]
[Stanley Lubman, Bird in a cage: Chinese law reform after twenty years (2000)]
[Frank Dikötter, Crime and punishment in early republican China: Beijing' s first model prison, 1912-1922, December 2000]
[Cultures of confinement]
[Chinese Torture / Supplice Chinois: Iconographic, Historical and Literary Approaches of an Exotic Representation, 2003-2004]
[Norman Smith, Qing systems of judgment: an evaluation of English language materials (1997/1998)]
[The development of legislative interpretation, August 1999]
[Violina P.Rindova/William H.Starbuck, Ancient Chinese theories of control (1997)]
[Law, order and administration]
[Murder in Ha-Tien, The concept of justice in Chinese society (1998)]
[A complete book concerning happiness and benevolence, A manual for Local Magistrates in Seventeenth-Century China, topic 1: Selection and appointment]
[Chinese Law Codes: The Tang Code, The Ming Code, The Qing Code]
[Daniel Arthur Laprès, Histoire du droit chinois]
[Jean Escarra, Le droit Chinois: conception générale, aperçu historique (1936)]
[falüshi xueshu wang (legal history net)]
[Zhongguo Zhengfa Daxue Falü Shixue Yanjiuyuan (Legal History Research Center of China University of Political Science and Law)]

[Rule of Law in Ancient China: Chinese substance or Western function?]
[David Clark, The many meanings of rule of law]
[Nicholas Bequelin, Beijing's Rule of Law Retreat, July 1, 2007]
[Wang Yi, Human Rights Lawyers and the Rule of Law camp (2006)]
[He Weifang, Judicial system and governance in traditional China (I), September 26, 2005]
[He Weifang, Judicial system and governance in traditional China (II), September 28, 2005]
[China's legal system in transition; August 15, 2005]
[Gunter Schubert, Reforming authoritarianism in contemporary China. Reflections on Pan Wei's Consultative rule of law regime (2005)]
[Minxin Pei, Testimony on Rule of Law in China, Statement to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, June 7, 2005)]
[Cao Kangtai, Quanmian tuijin yi fa xingzheng, shuangli jianshe fazhi zhengfu, 9/7/2004]
[Xiao Yang, Economic development and legal evolution in China, September 9, 2003]
[Ram Gorny, China: Rule of law, sometimes, July 3, 2003]
[Congressional-Executive Commision on China, The rule of law in China: Lawyers without law?; April 1, 2003]
[Hans van Ess, Ist China konfuzianisch?, May 2003]
[Rule of Law in Ancient China: Chinese Substance or Western Function? ]
[Michael M.Berrell, Jeff Wrathall, Changing attitudes to intellectual property rights in China: The nexus between Chinese culture and the rule of law]
[Alice Ehr-Soon Tay, "Asian values" and the rule of law]
[Randy Peerenboom, Let One Hundred Flowers bloom, One Hundred Flowers contend: Debating rule of law in China - Part One (2002)]
[Randy Peerenboom, Let One Hundred Flowers bloom, One Hundred Flowers contend: Debating rule of law in China - Part Two (2002)]
[The pursuit of non-liberal rule of law in China, statement of Randy Peerenboom; April 1, 2003]
[PRC Establishing the rule of law and respect for human rights: The need for institutional and legal reforms, Memorandum to the State Council and National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China by Amnesty International, September 2002]
[Leïla Choukroune, Chine - OMC : l’Etat de droit par l’internationalisation?, Mars 2002]
[Ronald Dworkin, Taking rights seriously in Beijing (2002)]
[NPC Deputy on China's socialist legal system; March 12,2001]
[Integrating rule of country by law and by morality; February 1, 2001]
[Li Zhenghui, Wang Zhenming, The developing human rights and rule of law in legal philosophy and in political practice in China, 1978-2000]
[Zhenmin Wang, The developing rule of law in China (2000)]
[Sebastian Heilmann, Die Menschenrechtsfrage und die Perspektiven eines Rechtsstaates in China (1999)]
[Carlos Wing-Hung Lo, Socialist legal theory in Deng Xiao-Ping's China (1998)]
[Alan Fox, The aesthetics of justice: Harmony and order in Chinese thought(1995)]
[Stanley Lubman, Prospects for the Rule of Law in China After Accession to the WTO]

[Guowuyuan gongbao, 2008-1999]
[Guowuyuan gongbao, 2005-2002]
[difang gongbao]
[Fazhi Ribao]
[idem, per page]
[Jiancha Ribao]

[Zhongguo Renda Xinwen]
[falü xinwen]
[fazhi xinwen]
[Sifabu: fazhi xinwen]
[Waijiaobu wang (multilingual)]
[idem, Waijiaobu wang (multilingual)]
[Shangwubu wang (multilingual)]
[Renminwang - xinwen zhongxin]
[Zhongguo Fayuan Wang]
[Zuigao Renmin Jianchyuan wang]
[Zhengyi Wang]
[Zhongfa wang - Falü fuwu jiaoyu wenhua guoji jigou]
[government infoprmation, briefingds, opinions, &c.]
[news archive]

© 2005-2008 Jacoba J.H.M.Hanenburg