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POLITICAL SYSTEM - SYSTEME POLITIQUE - POLITISCHES SYSTEM - zhengzhi zhidu
http://french.peopledaily.com.cn/Culture/4547985.html
[Proclamation de la République populaire de Chine]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_the_People's_Republic_of_China
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politisches_System_der_Volksrepublik_China
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politique_de_la_Chine
http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Política_de_la_República_Popular_China
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communist_Party_of_China
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parti_communiste_chinois
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kommunistische_Partei_Chinas
http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Partido_Comunista_de_China
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communist_state
http://www.china.org.cn/english/Political/25060.htm
[China's political system]
http://china-hiking.com/ChinaStatus/PoliticalSystem/zz.htm
[Political system]
http://french.10thnpc.org.cn/fa-zhengzhi/index.htm
[Le régime politique Chinois)]
http://german.china.org.cn/de-zhengzhi/index.htm
[Chinas politisches System]
http://spanish.china.org.cn/spanish/xi-zhengzhi/index.htm
[Systema politico de China]
http://www.politique.com/dossiers/international/articles/systeme-politique-chine-2006.htm
[Le système politique]
http://english.people.com.cn/data/organs/home.html
[CPC and State Organs of the PRC]
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/in_depth/china_politics/government/html/1.stm
[How China is ruled]
http://www.faz.net/s/Rub0778DE9E237D4CD6BB1720FB3B76E07B/Doc~E99B3A206D0724875885B84342
C125EB6~ATpl~Ecommon~SMed.html

[Das politische System der Volksrepublik China, interaktives Flash (2008)]
http://www.china.org.cn/features/leadership/node_1086673.htm
[Who is Who in China's in China's leadership]
http://www.china.org.cn/e-china/politicalsystem/index.htm
[China in brief: political system & state structure]
http://www.asianinfo.org/asianinfo/china/politics.htm
[Chinese Politics: political system and state structure]
http://www.wellesley.edu/Polisci/wj/ChinaLinks-New/index.html
[China politics links; July 2007]
http://www.economist.com/countries/china/profile.cfm?folder=Profile-Political Forces
[Political forces: CCP, PLA; February 5, 2007]
http://agora.qc.ca/mot.nsf/Dossiers/Chine
[L'Encyclopédie de l 'Agora, Dossier Chine]
http://www.iri.org/asia/china.asp
[Supporting reform in China (2006)]
http://www.socialistworld.net/eng/2008/10/31chinaa.html
[Lynn Walsh, The character of the Chinese state, October 21, 2008]

http://www.socialismtoday.org/114/china.html
[Vincent Kolo, China’s capitalist counter-revolution, December 2007]
http://www.springerlink.com/content/8881336436531077/fulltext.pdf
[W.W.Zhang, Long-term outlook for China’s political reform, May 6, 2006]
http://www2.bpb.de/publikationen/T8KUJ9,4,0,Charakteristika_des_politischen_Systems.html
[Sebastian Heilmann, Charakteristika des politischen Systems, 9. Februar 2006]
http://www.senat.fr/rap/r05-307/r05-30711.html
[Sénat, Mission effectuée en Chine du 10 au 22 septembre 2005: Le paradoxe de l'organisation politique en Chine]
http://www.asienkunde.de/articles/Schubert94.pdf
[Gunter Schubert, Reforming authoritarianism in contempory China. Reflections on Pan Wei's consultative rule of law regime, Januar 2005]
http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/118806355/PDFSTART
[Frank N.Pieke, Contours of an anthropology of the Chinese state: political structure, agency and economic development in Rural China (2004)]
http://mcx.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/30/2/228
[Lianjiang Li, Political trust in rural China (2004)]
http://academics.cuberoof.com/sisea532-Chin-poli/Pei_v_Naughton.pdf
[Pete Sweeny, The carrot, the stick, and the Communist Party: Barry Naughton et al. versus Minxin Pei (2004)]
http://www.china.org.cn/english/2003/Jan/53916.htm
[New Beijing municipal government elected; January 20, 2003]
http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20020901faessay9735/minxin-pei/china-s-governance-crisis.html
[Minxin Pei, China's governance crisis, September 2002]
http://scid.stanford.edu/pdf/credpr61.pdf
[Jean C.Oi, Bending without breaking, The adaptability of China's political institutions, October 2000]
http://www.chinafokus.de/nmun/1_liste.php
[Jakob Hort, Die Institutionelle Struktur der VR China und ihre Abhängigkeit von personalpolitischen Konstellationen (2000)]
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/longterm/china/stories/beijing041998.htm
[Steven Mufson, Debate blossoms In Beijing Spring, April 19,1998]
http://www.chinapolitik.de/china/pubs/china_polsys/polsys1.pdf
[Sebastian Heilmann, Das politische System der Volksrepublik China im Überblick (1997)
http://english.people.com.cn/data/organs/cpc.html
[The Communist Party of China (CPC)]
http://www.china.org.cn/english/features/state_structure/64735.htm
[Chart of the Central Organizations of the CPC (2003)]
http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/55/index-j.html
[The Communist Party of the PRC: The contempory political history of the PRC]
http://news.xinhuanet.com/ziliao/2002-01/22/content_629541.htm
[Zhongguo Gongchandang dishiliu jie Zhongyang Weiyuanhui]
http://www.chinabusinessreview.com/public/0405/governmentstructure.pdf
[PRC government structure (graphic), May 4, 2004]
http://www.china.org.cn/english/features/state_structure/64735.htm
[Chart of the Central Organizations of the CPC; May 20, 2003]
http://asianresearch.org/articles/1179.html
[4 popular political jokes in Beijing]

2007 white paper - livre blanc - Weißbuch - baipishu
http://www.china.com.cn/policy/zhengdang/node_7037982.htm
[Zhongguo de zhengdang zhidu]
http://www.fdlw.gov.cn/news/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID=571
[idem, Zhongguo de zhengdang zhidu]
http://www.lawinfochina.com/Wbk/display.asp?id=57&keyword=
[China's Political Party System & Zhongguo de zhengdang zhidu]
http://www.china.org.cn/english/features/book/231979.htm
[China's Political Party System]
http://french.china.org.cn/livreblanc/partispolitiques/node_7039662.htm
[Le système des partis politiques en Chine]

LEGAL SYSTEM - RÉGIME LÉGISLATIVE - LEGISLATIVES SYSTEM - falü zhidu
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law_of_the_People's_Republic_of_China
http://www.china.org.cn/english/features/legislative/75857.htm
[the legislative system of China]
http://french.china.org.cn/french/97552.htm
Le régime législatif de Chine]
http://french.china.org.cn/french/14.htm
[legislation]
http://www.china.org.cn/english/kuaixun/76212.htm
[Chinese current legislation structure; September 28, 2003]
http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200103/12/eng20010312_64702.html
[NPC Deputy on China's socialist legal system; March 12, 2001]
http://www.humanrights.cn/zt/magazine/200402004812104351.htm
[Xu Chongde, China's constitution: Guarantee for people's rights]
http://french.10thnpc.org.cn/china/archives/legislation/node_2097552.htm
[Le régime législatif de Chine  (2006)]
http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.giq.2005.05.003
[Susan Xue, China’s legislative system and information: An overview, July 14, 2005]
http://donclarke.net/public/ChineseLegalSystem.html
[Donald C.Clarke, The Chinese Legal System, July 4, 2005]
http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/human_rights_quarterly/v029/29.3wan.pdf
[Ming Wang, Human Rights Lawmaking in China: Domestic politics, international law, and international politics (2007)
http://www.cfr.org/publication/8458/law_in_political_transitions.html?breadcrumb=%2Fbios%2F14%2Fjerome_a_cohen
[Jerome A.Cohen, Law in political transitions: Lessons from East Asia and the road ahead for China,July 26, 2005]
http://english.people.com.cn/200508/15/eng20050815_202556.html
[Jerome Cohen, China's legal system in transition, August 15, 2005]
http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&contentId=A57447-2004Mar14
[Edward Cody, China amends constitution to guarantee human rights, March 14, 2004]
http://www.humanrights.cn/zt/magazine/200402004812104351.htm
[Xu Chongde, China's constitution: Guarantee for people's rights]
http://www.freechina.net/2004/comment/00012.htm
[Stanley Lubman, Bird in a cage: Chinese law reform after twenty years, May 1, 2000]
http://www.angelfire.com/stars/tkchang/China_Legal_Update.htm
[T.K.Chang, China: Review of 1999 legal developments and 2000 preview, December 1999]
http://www.questia.com/library/book/fundamental-legal-documents-of-communist-china-by-albert-p-blaustein.jsp
[Fundamental legal documents of communist China (1962)]
http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=34791&tx
[Thomas E. Kellogg, The death of constitutional litigation in China?, April 2, 2009]
http://www.chinapolitik.de/studien/china_analysis/no_13.pdf
[Nicole Schulte-Kultmann, Der Einfluss westlicher Rechtsberatung auf die Rechtsreformen in der Volksrepublik China: Zur Rolle von Akteuren und nteressen in der chinesischen-westlichen Rechtsberatung, Juli 2002]

2008 white paper - livre blanc - Weißbuch - baipishu
http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/2008-02/28/content_904648.htm
[Zhongguo de fazhi jianshe]
http://www.china.com.cn/policy/fzjs/node_7041734.htm
[idem, Zhongguo de fazhi jianshe]
http://www.humanrights.cn/cn/rqlt/rqwj/rqbps/t20080229_325360.htm
[Zhongguo de fazhi jianshe]
http://www.chinahumanrights.org/Whitepapers/Whitepapers/t20080229_325337.htm
[China's Efforts and Achievements in Promoting the Rule of Law]
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2008npc/2008-02/28/content_6495385.htm
[idem, China's Efforts and Achievements in Promoting the Rule of Law]
http://english.gov.cn/2008-02/28/content_904901.htm
[idem, China's Efforts and Achievements in Promoting the Rule of Law]
http://french.china.org.cn/livreblanc/edificationdelalegalite/node_7045531.htm
[
L‘édification de la légalité en Chine]

STATE STRUCTURE - STRUCTURE DE L'ÉTAT - STAATSORGANE - guojia zhidu & guojia jigou
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_de_la_République_populaire_de_Chine
http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Costituzione_della_Repubblica_Popolare_Cinese
http://www.china.org.cn/english/features/state_structure/64401.htm
[structure of the state]
http://french.china.org.cn/french/60506.htm
[La structure de l'État]
http://french.10thnpc.org.cn/china/archives/etatstructure/node_2060506.htm
[La structure de l'État (2006)]
http://german.china.org.cn/german/83780.htm
[Die Politische Konsultativkonferenz des chinesischen Volkes]
http://www.china.org.cn/e-Internet/ZZ/HTM/information1.htm
[central state organs (chart)]
http://www.legalinfo.gov.cn/english/StateOrgans/StateOrgans.htm
[state organs ]
http://german.china.org.cn/de-guojia/
[Staatsorgane]
http://www.gksoft.com/govt/en/cn.html
[Governments on the WWW: China (PRC)]
http://www.china-botschaft.de/det/lj/t93721.htm
[Regierungsstellen: Ministerien und Kommissionen, Lokalregierungen; 4. Juli 2007]
http://www.gksoft.com/govt/en/cn.html
[Governments on the WWW: China (PRC)]
http://dir.sina.com.cn/
[heading: zhengfa junshi-falü]
http://dir.iask.com/search_dir/zf/law/
[falü zhengfa ku]
http://www.jincao.com/e.htm
[guojia jiguan & zhengfu jigou]
http://www.jincao.com/sszf/f.01.htm
[ge sheng shi zhengfu jigou]
http://www.jincao.com/e.htm
[guojia jiguan & zhengfu jigou]
http://www.jincao.com/sszf/f.01.htm
[ge sheng shi zhengfu jigou]
http://german.china.org.cn/german/shuzi-ger/gq/htm/gq.htm
[Staatsflagge, Staatswappen, Nationalhymne, Hauptstadt]

people's congresses - assemblées populaires - Volkskongresse - renmin daibiao dahui
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_People's_Congress
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nationaler_Volkskongress
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standing_Committee_of_the_National_People's_Congress
http://english.gov.cn/2005-09/02/content_28456.htm
[The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress]
http://www.legalinfo.gov.cn/english/StateOrgans/StateOrgans1.htm
[The system of People's Congress]
http://english.gov.cn/links/npc.htm
[The National People's Congress, March 15, 2008]
http://www.npc.gov.cn/englishnpc/NPCChina/2008-01/15/content_1389717.htm
[A portrait of modern China; January 15, 2008]
http://english.people.com.cn/200409/17/eng20040917_157348.html
[Top legislator stresses NPC system; September 17, 2004]
http://www.jstor.org/stable/651543
[Philip L. Bridgham, The National People's Congress, June 1965]
http://www.china.org.cn/english/chuangye/55414.htm
[The National People's Congress]
http://german.china.org.cn/de-zhengzhi/3.htm
[Das System der Volkskongresse]
http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/ce/cede/det/jj/t412248.htm
[System der Volkskongresse ist wichtiges Element des politischen Organs Chinas; 5. März 2008]
http://www.appf.org.pe/members/005about.htm
[general, electoral system, last elections, presidency of the parliament; September 1, 1992]
http://www.bjreview.com.cn/200409/Cover-200409(A).htm
[Li Zi, NPC: the rule of law (2004)]
http://rauli.cbs.dk/index.php/cjas/article/viewFile/11/15
[Chao Chien-min, The National People's Congress oversight power and the role of the CCP (2003)]
http://french.10thnpc.org.cn/french/60444.htm
[Quels sont les rapports entre l'APN et les assemblées populaires locales?]
http://de.chinabroadcast.cn/21/more/2567/ZTmore2567.htm
[Welche Kompetenzen hat der NVK, &c.]
http://news.xinhuanet.com/ziliao/2004-11/15/content_2221419.htm
[Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (1994-2008)]
http://www.npc.gov.cn/npc/rdjg/node_507.htm
[Renda jigou (2008)]
http://npc.people.com.cn/
[Zhongguo Renda Wang]

president - Président - Staatspräsident - zhuxi
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/President_of_the_People's_Republic_of_China
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Président_de_la_République_populaire_de_Chine
http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presidente_de_la_República_Popular_China
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_des_présidents_de_la_République_Populaire_de_Chine
http://english.gov.cn/links/presidency.htm
[The presidency of the People's Republic of China; March 15, 2008]
http://german.china.org.cn/de-zhengzhi/8.htm
[Das System des Staatspräsidenten]
http://www.china.org.cn/german/shuzi-ger/zz/htm/zz2.htm
[Die Staatsorgane: der Staatspräsident]

central government: state council - Conseil des affaires d'État - Staatsrat - Guowuyuan
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_Council_of_the_People's_Republic_of_China
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conseil_d'État_de_la_République_populaire_de_Chine
http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consejo_de_Estado_de_la_República_Popular_China
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staatsrat_der_Volksrepublik_China
http://german.china.org.cn/de-zhengzhi/5.htm
[Das zentrale Verwaltungssystem]
http://german.china.org.cn/de-zhengzhi/9.htm
[Das Kader (Staatsangestellten) System]
http://english.mofcom.gov.cn/organization.shtml
[State organs and people's organizations of the People's Republic of China]
http://www.newsgd.com/specials/2008NPCCPPCC/content/2008-03/12/content_4350265.htm
[China to set up five new "super ministries"; March 12, 2008]
http://english.gov.cn/links/statecouncil.htm
[The State Council; October 25, 2005]
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/china/state_council.htm
[State Council & Agencies; April 27, 2005]
http://www.china.org.cn/english/kuaixun/64784.htm
[The organizational structure of the State Council; May 20, 2003]
http://www.sasac.gov.cn/n2963340/2964236.html
[Ministries & Commissions, &c.]
http://www.gov.cn/
[Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Zhongyang Renmin Zhengfu menhu wangzhan]
http://www.sinoptic.ch/politique/rpc/gouv/
[Dirigeants de la République populaire de Chine: Gouvernement 2003 2008]
http://www.sinoptic.ch/politique/rpc/gouv/1998.htm
[Dirigeants de la République populaire de Chine: Gouvernement 1998-2003]
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/66277.stm
[New government line-up in China, March 18, 1998]
http://www.legalinfo.gov.cn/moj/mojindex.htm
[Sifabu wang (2008)]
http://www.mfa.gov.cn/chn/
[Waijiaobu wang (2008)]
http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/
[Shangwubu wang (2008)]

local governments - gouvernements locaux -  lokales Verwaltungssystem - difang geji renmin zhengfu
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_divisions_of_China
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provinces_de_Chine
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Administrative_Gliederung_der_Volksrepublik_China
http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suddivisione_amministrativa_della_Cina
http://german.china.org.cn/de-zhengzhi/6.htm
[Das lokale Verwaltungssystem]
http://www.hec.fr/eurasia/upload/carte_dirigeants_province.pdf
[Dirigeants des provinces chinoises (2003)]
http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/china/v005/5.1bo.pdf
[Bo Zhiyue, China’s new provincial leaders: Major reshuffling before the 17th National Party Congress, March 2007]
http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/china/v005/5.2seckington.pdf
[Ian Seckington, County leadership in China: A baseline survey, September 2007]
http://www.unescap.org/huset/lgstudy/country/china/china.html
[local government in Asia and the Pacific, A comparative study, Country Paper: China]
http://www.citymayors.com/government/china_locgov.html
[Nick Swift, Local government reforms in China are led by big cities, October 23, 2004]
http://www.chinapolitik.de/studien/china_analysis/no_18.pdf
[Jörn-Carsten Gottwald, Regionale Reformpolitik in China, die Modernisierung von Staat und Verwaltung, November 2002]
http://ksghome.harvard.edu/~asaich/Blind-Man-and-the-Elephant.pdf
[Tony Saich, The blind man and the elephant: Analysing the local state in China, June 2001]
http://www.unescap.org/huset/lgstudy/country/china/china.html
[Local Government in Asia and the Pacific, A Comparative Study, Country Paper: China]

relations between central and local governments - relations entre le gouvernement central et gouvernements locaux -  Beziehungen zwischen der Zentralregierung und den lokalen Regierungen -  zai zhongyang he dangdi zhengfu zhi jian de guanxi
http://www.unescap.org/huset/lgstudy/country/china/china.html#links
(central-local links:Organizational leadership and subordination
http://www.clb.org.hk/en/node/100233
[local government rides roughshod over the law; March 27, 2008]
http://media.hoover.org/documents/clm20bn.pdf
[Barry Naughton, The assertive center: Beijing moves against local government control of land (2007)]
http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/china/v004/4.2lai.pdf
[Lai, Manhong, and Lo, Leslie Nai-Kwai, Decentralisation and the development of vocational education in China,
September 2006]
http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/china/v003/3.2yongnian.pdf
[Yongnian Zheng, Institutional economics and central-local relations in China: evolving research, September 2005]
http://www.rieti.go.jp/en/china/03062701.html
[Chi Hung Kwan, Adjusting the fiscal relationship between central and local governments: China gropes for
centralization, while Japan heads toward decentralization
, June 27, 2003]
http://www.wdi.umich.edu/files/Publications/WorkingPapers/wp68.pdf
[
Yasheng Huang, The political economy of central-local relations in China: Inflation and investment controls during the reform era (1997]
http://elsa.berkeley.edu/~yqian/93-4.pdf
[Gabriella Montinola, Yingyi Qian, and. Barry R. Weingast, Federalism, Chinese Style: The political basis for economic success in China, October 1995]

central military commission - commission militaire centrale - Zentrale Militärkommission - zhongyang junshi weiyuanhui
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Military_Commission
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commission_militaire_centrale_(RPC) (
http://www.knowledgerush.com/kr/encyclopedia/Central_Military_Commission_of_the_CPC/
[Central Military Commission of the PRC: facts & figures, foreign media reports, China official militrary news, military education and training, nuclear weapons, disarmement, China military budget, maps
, June 19, 2007]
http://www.chinatoday.com/org/cpc/central-military-commission.htm
[Central Military Commission of Chinese Communist Party]
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/china/cmc.htm
[Central Military Commission, membership, organization chart, agencies; audio]
http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/china/agency/cmc.htm
[Central Military Commission: state and party central military commissions; June 10,1998]
http://www.humanrights.cn/en/organizations/stateorgans/t20061031_170786.htm
[Organizations of the CMC; October 31, 2006]
http://www.cinsky.cz/index.php?page=clanek&id=348&lang=en
[Leah Kimmerly, Johanna Cox, Evaluating trends in Central Millitary Commission membership, January 10, 2007]
http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2007-08/01/content_6459525.htm
[China marks PLA's 80th birthday with grand rally, August 1, 2007]
http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/10/22/asia/AS-GEN-China-Politics-Military.php
[China's Hu reappointed military commission head after promoting new generals, October 22, 2007]
http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200503/13/eng20050313_176614.html
[Hu Jintao elected chairman of state Central Military Commission, March 13, 2005]
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2004-09/19/content_375772.htm
[Hu takes over as CPC military commission chief, September 19, 2004]

army - armée - Armee - renmin jiefangjun
http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volksbevrijdingsleger
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/People's_Liberation_Army
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armée_populaire_de_libération
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volksbefreiungsarmee
http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ejército_Popular_de_Liberación_(China)
http://www.china.org.cn/french/60691.htm
[composition des forces armées de l'État]
http://www.china.org.cn/de-zhengzhi/7.htm
[Das Militärsystem]
http://www.sinodefence.com/armedforces/report/080511a.asp
[PLA's new modular force structure;
May 11, 2008]
http://www.sinodefence.com/
[China Defence Today: reports]
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/china/intro.htm
[military:introduction, background, &c.; audio]
http://www.ndu.edu/inss/China_Center/CMA_Conf_Oct00/paper17.htm
[Bernard D.Cole, "The People's Liberation Army-navy: ten issues, October 2000]
http://www.chinatoday.com/arm/china-military.htm

judiciary - appareil judiciaire - Justiz - sifa  xitong, sifa tizhi
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_judicial_system
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penal_system_in_the_People's_Republic_of_China
http://www.olemiss.edu/courses/pol324/chnjudic.htm
[China's judicial system]
http://www.china.org.cn/english/Judiciary/25025.htm
[China's judiciary]
http://french.10thnpc.org.cn/fa-sifa/index.htm
[Le système judiciaire de Chine]
http://french.china.org.cn/fa-sifa/1.htm
[le système judiciaire]
http://french.china.org.cn/fa-sifa/2.htm
[le système de contrôle]
http://french.china.org.cn/fa-sifa/4.htm
[le système pénitentiaire]
http://french.china.org.cn/fa-sifa/5.htm
[le système arbitral]
http://french.china.org.cn/fa-sifa/7.htm
[le système de médiation]
http://french.china.org.cn/fa-sifa/10.htm
[le système de l'indemnisation par l'État]
http://french.china.org.cn/french/200731.htm
[La démocratie judiciaire]
http://www.china.org.cn/german/24676.htm
[Chinas Rechtswesen (2002)]
http://german.china.org.cn/politics/archive/judiciary/node_2024676.htm
[idem, Chinas Rechtswesen (2002)]
http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/ascii/wfbcjchi.txt
[World Factbook of Criminal Justice Systems: China (1993)]
http://www.chinaiprlaw.com/english/courts/court3.htm
[people's courts and special people's courts]
http://www.chinaiprlaw.com/english/courts/court1.htm
[The organization, functions and powers of the people's courts]
http://www.chinaiprlaw.com/english/courts/court2.htm
[Supreme People's Court]
http://www.chinavitae.com/institution/JUD/4010.101
[Supreme People's Court, view 9 biographies with career data for this institution]
http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200609/07/eng20060907_300453.html
[Software helps judges mete out sentences; September 7, 2006]
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-09/17/content_478587.htm
[Liu Li, Legal reform likely as juvenile crime rises, September 17, 2005]
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2004-04/16/content_323873.htm
[Judicial reform protects human rights; April 16, 2004]
http://china.org.cn/english/government/93200.htm
[Criminal coercive measures standardized, April 16, 2004]
http://www.legalinfo.gov.cn/english/PrisonAdmin/PrisonAdmin.htm
[jail system (2004)]
http://www.bjreview.cn/g-br/2004-42/2004.42-fm-1.htm
[Jian Fa, Förderung der Justizreform (2004)]
http://www.llrx.com/features/chinajudicial.htm
[Zhai Jianxiong, Judicial information of the PRC: a survey, September 30, 2002]
http://www.icj.org/news.php3?id_article=2678
[China: Attacks on justice; August 27, 2002]
http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Als/pdf/02.pdf
[Xin Chunying, Ye Ziqiang, (a.o.), China's judicial system and its reform, March 2001]

people's police - police populaire - Volkspolizei - jingcha / gong'an jiguan
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law_enforcement_in_the_People's_Republic_of_China
http://french.china.org.cn/fa-sifa/3.htm
[l'investigation]
http://www.aic.gov.au/conferences/occasional/xiancui.html
[Li Xiancui, Crime and Policing in China, September 27, 1998]
http://www.mps.gov.cn/English/content06_3_1.htm
[policing in China; 2005, 2006]
http://www.cpexhibition.com/police/
[China Police 2008, exhibition, news]
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2007-08/29/content_6066310.htm
[Virtual Beijing police to patrol in cyber world, August 29, 2007]
http://www.pokerlistings.com/virtual-cops-to-monitor-gambling-porn-in-china
[Sarah Poulson, Virtual cops to monitor gambling, porn in China, April 16, 2007]
http://www.gdga.gov.cn/08/
[Guangdong Sheng Gong'anting]
http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_46e81ddb0100041r.html
[Zhongguo diyi gong'an boke de]
http://www.danwei.org/internet/china_first_police_blog.php
[China first police blog]
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BI0KR2p9SZ
[nüjingcha, video]

people's prosecutor's offices - parquets populaires- Volksstaatsanwaltschaft - renmin
http://www.chinaembassy.org.np/china_abc/politics/supreme_procuratorate.htm
[Supreme People's Procuratorate (2003)]
http://en.chinacourt.org/public/detail.php?id=44
[introduction to the People's Procuratorates of the PRC]
http://www.china.org.cn/english/shuzi-en/en-shuzi/zz/htm/gj.htm
[Supreme People's Procuratorate (SPP)]
http://www.china.org.cn/english/features/state_structure/65032.htm
[The organizational setup of the SPP; May 20, 2003]
http://www.gov.cn/english/links/supremeprocuratorate.htm
[The Supreme People's Procuratorate; October 25, 2005]
http://www.chinesemission-vienna.at/eng/fyywj/t313486.htm
[
Procurator General JIA on the status and role of China's Procuratorates in the field of criminal justice and crime prevention, April 23, 2007]
http://www.spp.gov.cn/site2006/
[Zuigao Renmin Jianchayuan wang]

people's courts - cours populaires- Volksgerichte - renmin fayuan
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Court_system_of_the_People's_Republic_of_China
http://www.china.org.cn/french/60562.htm
[organes judiciaires de l'État]
http://www.chinaiprlaw.com/english/news/news.htm
[Courts: People's Courts & Special People's Courts, The Supreme People's Court, The organization, functions and powers of the People's courts]
http://www.chinaiprlaw.com/english/courts/court1.htm
[The organization, functions and powers of the People's courts]
http://www.chinaiprlaw.com/english/courts/court2.htm
[Supreme People's Court]

http://en.chinacourt.org/
[court news and legal information]
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/en/doc/2003-12/23/content_293544.htm
[Wang Wu, Rule by law should be reinforced (Intervention from local government leaders), December 23, 2003]
http://chinaperspectives.revues.org/document274.html
[Yuwen Li, Professional Ethics of Chinese Judges, May-june 2003]
http://www.chinaiprlaw.com/english/courts/court2.htm
[The Supreme People's Court of the PRC; July 5, 2002]
http://www.chinaiprlaw.com/english/courts/court3.htm
[people's courts & special people's courts; July 5, 2002]
http://www.oycf.org/oycfold/httpdocs/Perspectives2/16_033102/two_faces.htm
[Zhao Xiaoli, The two faces of the people's tribunals in rural China, March 31, 2002]
http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/english/200109/11/eng20010911_79914.html
[Shanghai Youth Courts protect children's rights; September 11, 2000]
http://www.unesco.org/courier/1999_11/fr/dossier/txt24.htm
[Katherine Arms, Les tribunaux chinois ont la cote, Novembre 1999]
http://en.chinacourt.org/
[court news and legal information]

http://www.chinacourt.org/
[Renmin Fayuanwang]
http://www.court.gov.cn/
[Zuigao Renmin Fayuan wangzhan]
http://www.xinhuanet.com/legal/sjfy.htm
[2004 Zhongguo shi jia renmin fating pingxuan]

counsel - avocat - Rechtsanwalt - lüshi
http://www.china.org.cn/english/Judiciary/31275.htm
[Lawyer system]
http://french.china.org.cn/fa-sifa/6.htm
[le système des avocats]
http://www.china.org.cn/german/24790.htm
[das Rechtsanwaltssystem]
http://www.revue-du-commerce-international.info/dossiers/avocat-chine
[Mathieu Boyer, Etre avocat en Chine]
http://www.sondelespoir.org/makeArticle.asp?catID=640&id=46187
[Thème de la semaine: Spécial Gao Zisheng; September 3, 2006]
http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200209/21/eng20020921_103602.shtml
[Chinese lawyers find new career opportunities following WTO entry, September 21, 2002]
http://www.cefc.com.hk/pccpa.php?aid=697
[Li Yuwen, Avocat: une profession "florissante"?]
http://french.china.org.cn/fa-sifa/11.htm
[l'assistance judiciaire]

LEGAL HISTORY - HISTOIRE DU DROIT - RECHTSGESCHICHTE - falüshi
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_law
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legal_history_of_the_People's_Republic_of_China
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traditional_Chinese_law
http://www.ii.umich.edu/ccs/events_programs/multimedia
[Lecture Series 2007-2008 (audio)]
http://www.mansfieldfdn.org/programs/program_pdfs/07he.pdf
[ Weifang He, The judicial system and governance in traditional China]
http://www.caei.com.ar/es/programas/asia/23.pdf
[Joerg Luther, Percezioni europee della sotria costituzionale cinese, October 2006]
http://www.civillaw.com.cn/english/article.asp?id=580
[Weifang He, Reconstruct Chinese Legal Tradition, I (2005)]
http://www.civillaw.com.cn/english/article.asp?id=583
[Weifang He, Reconstruct Chinese Legal Tradition, II (2005)]
http://www.law.fsu.edu/journals/transnational/vol14_2/milkwick.pdf
[Bradley L.Milkwick, Feeling for rocks while crossing the river: The gradual evolution of Chinese law, June 2005]
http://orias.berkeley.edu/summer2004/summer2004Chinalegal.htm
[A three-part discussion of the Chinese legal tradition: Legalism and Confucianism, Chinese detectives, Chinese perceptions of rule of law, July 2004]
http://www.civillaw.com.cn/english/article.asp?id=255
[Wang Weiguo, Some main characteristics of the traditional legal culture of China [2004)]
http://historycooperative.press.uiuc.edu/journals/lhr/21.2/delporte.html
[Dominiek Delporte, Precedents and the Dissolution of Marriage Agreements in Ming China (1368–1644). Insights from the "Classified Regulations of the Great Ming," Book 13 (2003)]
http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/ahr/105.5/ah001630.html
[Adrian Davis, Fraternity and Fratricide in Late Imperial China (2000)]
http://www.freechina.net/2004/comment/00012.htm
[Stanley Lubman, Bird in a cage: Chinese law reform after twenty years (2000)]
http://web.mac.com/dikotter/iWeb/Dikotter/Publications_files/Beijing%20Prison.pdf
[Frank Dikötter, Crime and punishment in early republican China: Beijing' s first model prison, 1912-1922, December 2000]
http://www.iias.nl/nl/32/IIAS_NL32_19.pdf
[Cultures of confinement]
ttp://turandot.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/
[Chinese Torture / Supplice Chinois: Iconographic, Historical and Literary Approaches of an Exotic Representation, 2003-2004]
http://www2.arts.ubc.ca/bcar/no11/articles/smith.pdf
[Norman Smith, Qing systems of judgment: an evaluation of English language materials (1997/1998)]
http://www.hk-lawyer.com/1999-8/Aug99-49.htm
[The development of legislative interpretation, August 1999]
http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~wstarbuc/ChinCtrl.html
[Violina P.Rindova/William H.Starbuck, Ancient Chinese theories of control (1997)]
http://www.talesofoldchina.com/shanghai/law/t-law.htm
[Law, order and administration]
http://www.askasia.org/teachers/essays/essay.php?no=94
[Murder in Ha-Tien, The concept of justice in Chinese society (1998)]
http://www.angelfire.com/ga2/stepstoinsanity/mm1.html
[A complete book concerning happiness and benevolence, A manual for Local Magistrates in Seventeenth-Century China, topic 1: Selection and appointment]
http://jalh.ku.edu/chinese_law_codes.htm
[Chinese Law Codes: The Tang Code, The Ming Code, The Qing Code]
http://www.lapres.net/drhstc.html
[Daniel Arthur Laprès, Histoire du droit chinois]
http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1522/cla.esj.dro
[Jean Escarra, Le droit Chinois: conception générale, aperçu historique (1936)]
http://www.legal-history.net/default.asp
[falüshi xueshu wang (legal history net)]
http://www.legalhistory.com.cn/
[Zhongguo Zhengfa Daxue Falü Shixue Yanjiuyuan (Legal History Research Center of China University of Political Science and Law)]

PHILOSOPHY - PHILOSOPHIE - PHILOSOPHIE - falü zhexue
http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recht
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law
http://www.hku.hk/philodep/ch/Substance-Function.htm
[Rule of Law in Ancient China: Chinese substance or Western function?]
http://www.lfip.org/lawe506/documents/lawe506davidclarke.pdf
[David Clark, The many meanings of rule of law]
http://hrw.org/english/docs/2007/07/02/china16329.htm
[Nicholas Bequelin, Beijing's Rule of Law Retreat, July 1, 2007]
http://hrichina.org/public/PDFs/CRF.3.2006/CRF-2006-3_Rule-of-Law.pdf
[Wang Yi, Human Rights Lawyers and the Rule of Law camp (2006)]
http://www.civillaw.com.cn/english/article.asp?id=526
[He Weifang, Judicial system and governance in traditional China (I), September 26, 2005]
http://www.civillaw.com.cn/english/article.asp?id=529
[He Weifang, Judicial system and governance in traditional China (II), September 28, 2005]
http://english.people.com.cn/200508/15/eng20050815_202556.html
[China's legal system in transition; August 15, 2005]
http://www.asienkunde.de/articles/Schubert94.pdf
[Gunter Schubert, Reforming authoritarianism in contemporary China. Reflections on Pan Wei's Consultative rule of law regime (2005)]
http://www.carnegieendowment.org/files/PeiTestimony050607.pdf
[Minxin Pei, Testimony on Rule of Law in China, Statement to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, June 7, 2005)]
http://www.legaldaily.com.cn/bm/2004-07/09/content_115208.htm
[Cao Kangtai, Quanmian tuijin yi fa xingzheng, shuangli jianshe fazhi zhengfu, 9/7/2004]
http://www.sal.org.sg/Lists/Speeches/DispForm.aspx?ID=11
[Xiao Yang, Economic development and legal evolution in China, September 9, 2003]
http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/EG03Ad03.html
[Ram Gorny, China: Rule of law, sometimes, July 3, 2003]
http://www.cecc.gov/pages/roundtables/040103/index.php
[Congressional-Executive Commision on China, The rule of law in China: Lawyers without law?; April 1, 2003]
http://www.chinapolitik.de/studien/china_analysis/no_23.pdf
[Hans van Ess, Ist China konfuzianisch?, May 2003]
http://www.hku.hk/philodep/ch/Substance-Function.htm
[Rule of Law in Ancient China: Chinese Substance or Western Function? ]
http://mams.rmit.edu.au/gbmel0526xzrz.pdf
[Michael M.Berrell, Jeff Wrathall, Changing attitudes to intellectual property rights in China: The nexus between Chinese culture and the rule of law]
http://dex1.tsd.unifi.it/juragentium/en/surveys/rol/tay.htm
[Alice Ehr-Soon Tay, "Asian values" and the rule of law]
http://www.oycf.org/oycfold/httpdocs/Perspectives2/17_063002/One_Hundred_Flower_Bloom.htm
[Randy Peerenboom, Let One Hundred Flowers bloom, One Hundred Flowers contend: Debating rule of law in China - Part One (2002)]
http://www.oycf.org/oycfold/httpdocs/Perspectives2/18_093002/one_hundred_flowers_p2.htm
[Randy Peerenboom, Let One Hundred Flowers bloom, One Hundred Flowers contend: Debating rule of law in China - Part Two (2002)]
http://www.cecc.gov/pages/roundtables/040103/peerenboom.pdf?PHPSESSID=974901604b94d3362f6fd98e17d0f621
[The pursuit of non-liberal rule of law in China, statement of Randy Peerenboom; April 1, 2003]
http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGASA170522002?open&of=ENG-2AS
[PRC Establishing the rule of law and respect for human rights: The need for institutional and legal reforms, Memorandum to the State Council and National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China by Amnesty International, September 2002]
http://www.ridi.org/adi/articles/2002/200203cho.htm
[Leïla Choukroune, Chine - OMC : l’Etat de droit par l’internationalisation?, Mars 2002]
http://www.oycf.org/oycfold/httpdocs/Perspectives2/19_123102/takingRights.htm
[Ronald Dworkin, Taking rights seriously in Beijing (2002)]
http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200103/12/eng20010312_64702.html
[NPC Deputy on China's socialist legal system; March 12,2001]
http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/english/200102/01/eng20010201_61410.html
[Integrating rule of country by law and by morality; February 1, 2001]
http://dex1.tsd.unifi.it/juragentium/en/index.htm?surveys/rol/wang.htm
[Li Zhenghui, Wang Zhenming, The developing human rights and rule of law in legal philosophy and in political practice in China, 1978-2000]
http://www.leggicinesi.it/dottrina/Wang_RuleLaw.pdf
[Zhenmin Wang, The developing rule of law in China (2000)]
http://www.chinapolitik.de/china/pubs/china_polsys/polsys5.pdf
[Sebastian Heilmann, Die Menschenrechtsfrage und die Perspektiven eines Rechtsstaates in China (1999)]
http://www.columbia.edu/cu/asiaweb/v11n2Carlos.htm
[Carlos Wing-Hung Lo, Socialist legal theory in Deng Xiao-Ping's China (1998)]
http://www.udel.edu/Philosophy/afox/aesth.htm
[Alan Fox, The aesthetics of justice: Harmony and order in Chinese thought(1995)]
http://www.law.berkeley.edu/institutes/csls/lubmanpaper.doc
[Stanley Lubman, Prospects for the Rule of Law in China After Accession to the WTO]

NEWSPAPERS - JOURNAUX - ZEITUNGEN - baokan/qikan
http://www.gov.cn/gongbao/2008/issue_1590.htm
[Guowuyuan gongbao, 2008-1999]
http://www.gov.cn/ziliao/gbgg/jingtai/gbgg_gwygb_gbzk.htm
[Guowuyuan gongbao, 2005-2002]
http://www.gov.cn/ziliao/gbgg/jingtai/gbgg_gwygb_bfgg.htm
[difang gongbao]
http://www.legaldaily.com.cn/
[Fazhi Ribao]
http://www.legaldaily.com.cn/bm/node_2.htm
[idem, per page]
http://www.jcrb.com/zyw/
[Jiancha Ribao]

NEWS - NOUVELLES - NACHRICHTEN - xinwen
http://npc.people.com.cn/
[Zhongguo Renda Xinwen]
http://www.law158.com/news/
[falü xinwen]
http://www.legaldaily.com.cn/xwzx/node_4225.htm
[fazhi xinwen]
http://www.legalinfo.gov.cn/
[Sifabu: fazhi xinwen]
http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/chn/
[Waijiaobu wang (multilingual)]
http://www.mfa.gov.cn/chn/
[idem, Waijiaobu wang (multilingual)]
http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/
[Shangwubu wang (multilingual)]
http://news.people.com.cn/GB/index.html
[Renminwang - xinwen zhongxin]
http://www.chinacourt.org/
[Zhongguo Fayuan Wang]
http://www.spp.gov.cn/site2006/
[Zuigao Renmin Jianchyuan wang]
http://www.jcrb.com/zyw/index.htm
[Zhengyi Wang]
http://www.1488.com/china/
[Zhongfa wang - Falü fuwu jiaoyu wenhua guoji jigou]
http://www.china.org.cn/government/node_1000044.htm
[government infoprmation, briefingds, opinions, &c.]
http://www.wangandwang.com/news.htm
[news]
http://www.wangandwang.com/news_past.htm
[news archive]

© 2005-2008 Jacoba J.H.M.Hanenburg