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De VRC heeft 20 provincies, 5 gebieden met nationaal zelfbestuur (Nei Mongol, Xinjiang, Guangxi, Ningxia, Tibet),
4 stadsprovincies (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Chongqing), en twee bijzondere administratieve gebieden (Hong Kong
en Macao).

info over de administratieve indeling [Zhongguo xingzhengquhua]épublique_populaire_de_Chineégion_administrative_spécialeégion_autonome_de_République_populaire_de_Chineé_(République_populaire_de_Chine)étique_des_villes_de_Chineädte_in_der_Volksrepublik_China's_Republic_of_China's_Republic_of_China's_Republic_of_China's_Republic_of_China's_Republic_of_China's_Republic_of_China
[administrative divisions]
[administrative divisions];
[Illuminating China's provinces, municipalities & autonomous regions]

geopolitiek [diyuan zhengzhi]
[An overview of spatial policy in Asian and European countries: China]
[situation géopolitique de la Chine. dernière mise à jour 26 novembre 2012]
[Strategic Change: New Geopolitical challenges. Mai 25, 2013]
[Declan Kelleher on the geopolitics of China,  Oct.4, 2010; & related videos]
[China vs USA - empires at war, & related videos]
[Top 10 most powerful countries]

Voorts maakt de VRC aanspraak op Taiwan, betiteld als 'opstandige provincie', op de Spratleys, een groep eilanden
in de Zuidchinese Zee, en op de Senkaku/Diaoyutai, een groep eilanden in de Oostchinese Zee.

Info over de aanspraak op Taiwan [Taiwan wenti, Taihai wenti, liang'an wenti]ïwanétroit

[Ralph Jennings, China-Taiwn relations hit low point. Same bed, different dreams? (+ video), Bovember 19, 2014]
[Alan D.Romberg, After the Taiwan election, Restoring dialogue while reserving options (2008)]
[Daniel McCarthy, Myths about China-Taiwan reunification, January 16, 2004]
[China to "pay any price" for national unity; November 23, 2003]
[David A. Shlapak, David T. Orletsky, Barry Wilson, Dire Strait? Military Aspects of the China-Taiwan Confrontation
and Options for U.S. Policy
[Administrative division: Taiwan province; July 13, 2000]
[China-Taiwan history; March 7, 2000]
[Dangerous Straits: introduction, interviews, experts' analyses, chronology & map, readings & links, teacher's guide, &c.]

info over de Zuid Chinese Zee [Zhongguo Nanhai]üdchinesisches_Meer
[introduction, Position paper, Spokespeerson's remarks, Policy and law, MFA news, News of ambassadors (2016)]
[introduction, biodiversity and natural resources, sea lines of commnication, regional solutions for regional problems, & more information; South China Sea conflict, news]
[Mother ship for Chinese deep-sea manned submersible returns home, 12/08/2016]
[Hanne Couderé, Trekt China ten oorlog?, 5 mei 2016]
[China sets up Joint Research Center on South China Sea, 27/03/2016]
[Mark Thompson, U.S.-China Showdown keeps inching closer, February 24, 2016]
[Naoya Yoshino, Chinese missiles put Obama administration under fire, February 19, 2016]
[Naoya Yoshino, Missile deployment will likely force Obama to revise strategy, February 18, 2016]
[Premier's proposal clarifies stand on South China Sea, November 23, 2015]
[China to continue island building, November 23, 2015]
[Jane Perle, In victory for Philippines, Hague Court to hear dispute over South China  Sea, October 30, 2015]
[Helene Cooper, White House moves to reassure Allies with South China Sea Patrol, but quietly, (& video), October 27, 2015]
[East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone. Xinhua 2014]
[Laura Schwartz, Competing claims in the South China Sea, Potential paths forward and implications for the United States,
February 2014]
[Ramses Amer, China, Vietnam, and the South China Sea: Disputes and Dispute Management, January 21, 2014]
[Chinese president stresses peaceful solution to South China Sea disputes; October 3, 2013; & related articles]
[James Manicom, China's energy development in the East China Sea, China Brief volume: 13 issue: 18, September 12, 2013]
[Florian Dupuy and Pierre-Marie Dupuy, A legal analysis of China's historic rights claim in the South China Sea, August 10, 2013;
& related articles]
[Gregory B.Poling, The South China Sea in Focus, Clarifying the limits of maritime dispute, July 2013]
[Yann-huei Song, Recent developments in the South China Sea: Taiwan's policy, response, challenges and opportunities,
June 2013]
[Nanhai jingji ziyuan de guojia boyi yu Zhongguo moulüe, 2013 nian 3 yue 8 ri]
[Hasjim Djalal, Dispute settlement and conflict management in te South China Sea, Apri-June 2012]
[Stirring up the South China Sea (I), Asia Report N° 223 - 23 April 2012, & appendix A - G]
[De Zuid-Chinese Zee: Een omstreden zeegebied; laatst gewijzigd 16 april 2013]
[Stirring up the South China Sea (II): Regional responses, Asia Report N° 229 - 24 July 2012, & appendix A - D]
[Lu Hui, China promotes "South China Sea Code of Conduct", & related news, November 22, 2011]
[Li Xiaokun, Hu Yinan, Code of conduct for S China Sea, updated November 20, 2011]
[Mohammad Anthoni, South China Sea needs legally bindng code of conduct, October 23, 2011]
[The senior officials meeting for the implementation of  "the Declaration on conduct of parties in the South China Sea"
reaches an agreement on the guideline, July 20, 2011]
[ASEAN Declaration on the conduct of parties in the South China Sea, 4 november 2002]
[Joshua Kurlantzick, Growing U.S. Role in in South China Sea, October 11, 2011]
[China hungry for South China Sea oil: Phlippines, July 23, 2011]
[Kathy Quiano, CNN: China, ASEAN agree on plans to solve South China Sea dispute, July 21, 2011]
[Kevin Voigt, Nathalie Robehmed, CNN,  Explainer: South China Sea - Asia's most dangerous waters, June 30, 2011]
[Tran Truong Thuy, Recent developments in the South China Sea: implications for regional security amd cooperation, June 30, 2011]
[Chris Buckley, China warns outside nations to stay out of sea dispute, June 15, 2011]
[South China Sea large marine ecosystem, August 24, 2008]
[Nguyen Hong Thao, The 2002 Declaration on the conduct of parties in the South China Sea (2003; dowsnload the full text)]
[Michael Stankiewzicz, Marititme shipping in Northeast Asia: Law of the seas, sea lanes, and security, IGCC Paper # 33,
February 1998]]
[The South China Sea contested waters: introduction, institutions, maps, publications A - Z, images, key terms, research guide]
[South China Sea Research Guide]]
[South China Sea: A key indicator for Asian security cooperation, & related videos]
[Documents on ASEAN and South China Sea (1992 - 2011)]

kaarten [ditu]
[Southeast Asia]
[Oldest British map of the South China Sea]
[Historical maps]
[Videographic: China's territorial disputes]
[The South China  Sea - contested waters, map]
[China's Nine-Dash Line Map of South China Sea Claims]
[South China Sea energy trade route]

info over de aanspraak op de Spratly Islands & de Paracel Islands [Nansha & Xisha wenti]éridionaleüber_die_Spratly-Inseln_verschärft_sich
[Spratly islands - China's precious pearls in the South Sea]
[Philip Bowring, The great game for the Spratleys, Vietnam takes command of the issue, August 6, 2010]
[Cheng-yi Lin, Taiwan's Spratly Initiative in the South China Sea, February 19, 2008]
[Cheng-yi Lin, Buffer benefits in Spratly initiative, February 22, 2008]
[Yann-huei Song, Codus of conduct in The South China Sea and Taiwan's stand, November 2000]
[History of the Nanhai (South China Sea) and the Spratly Islands (1999)]
[Frank Ching, Paracel Islands dispute, February 10, 1994]
[The development of China's marine programs; May 1998]

kaarten [ditu]
[Paracel islands, Spratley islands, maps]
[Google map of Paracel islands, country facts]
[Google map of Spratley Islands]
[Spratly Islands Google Satellite map]
[Interactive Map of the Spratly Islandssmd the Paracel Islands, South China Sea]
[China's 9-Dash Claim in Sout China Sea is rubbish - 10 reasons (2013)]
[China's massacre in Spratley islands (real footage 1988)]


info over de aanspraak op de Senkaku/Diaoyutai [Diaoy Dao zhuquan wenti]îles_Senkaku
[Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the PRC: The issue of Daoyu Dao (2014)]
[China Voice: No compromise on Diaoyu Islands, updated June /2014]
[Historical analysis on the Senkaku Islands, October 24, 2010; updated May 2013]
[Q&A: China-Japan islands row, April 29, 2013]
[Chinese military to join mapping of Diaoyu Islands, January 16, 2013]
[Martin Fackler, Chinese patrol ships pressuring Japan over islabnds, A Chinese marine surveillance ship cruising next to a Japanese Coast Guard patrol ship in the East China Sea in September, November 2, 2012]
[Senkaku-Diaoyu-islands dispute heats up after Japan buys the islands in 2012, Jeffrey Hays 2009, last updated December 2012]
[Diaoyu Islands cannot be bought, September 14, 2012]
[Vice Foreign Minister Zhang Zhijun gave briefing to Chinese and foreign journalists on the Diaoyu Dao Issue (transcript), October 27, 2012]
[Diaoyutai Dispute Special Report, Taiwan Newsletter October 26, 2012]
[Full text of Statement of the Ministry of foreign Affairs of the PRC, September 11, 2012]
[Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Waijiaobu shengming, 10/09/2012 - Renmin Ribao 11/09/2012]
[Yang Jingjie, China slams Japan's move over Diaoyi Islands, March 28, 2012]
[Diaoyudao zhuanti]
[Taïwan : Conflit autour des îles Diaoyutai; 5 juillet 2008]
[Portnoy Zheng, Taiwan: Conflict over Diaoyutai Islands, July 2, 2008]
[John Tkacik, Clear signal needed on disputed isles, June 27, 2008]
[Historical documents of the Diaoyu islands (2000)]
[Han-yi Shaw, The Diaoyutai/Senkaku Islands Dispute: Its history and an analysis of the ownership claims of the P.R.C., R.O.C., and Japan, Occasional Papers/Reprints Series in Contemporary  Asian Studies, Number 3 - 1999 (152)]
[Cheng-China Huang, Diaoyutai islands dispute, June 1997]
[Questions related to the Senkaku Islands and perspectives for their resolution, September 22, 1996]
[Kiyoshi Inoue, Japanese Militarism & Diaoyutai (Senkaku) Island, February 1972]
[Senkaku / Diaoyutai islands (chronology)
[references & links]

[Senkaku islands maps]
[map of Senkaku islands, & related videos]

info over de relaties met de buurlanden [Zhongguo yu zhoubian guojia de guanxi]
[Xi Jinping: China to further friendly relations with neighbouring countries; October 26,2013]
[India, China sign border agreement bu visa pact off over stapled visa row; video, Octiober 23, 2013]
[China, India border issue; May 7, 2013]
[Sudha  Ramachandran, China plays long game on border disputes, January 27, 2011]
[Xuecheng Liu, Look beyong  the Sino-Indian border dispute, June 2010]
[Nie Hongyi, Explaining Chinese solutions to territorial dispute with neighbour states, Chinese Journal of International Politicis, vol.2, 2009]
['Land boundary law' to handle border issues, last update June 2, 2006
[M Taylor Fravel, Regime insecurity and international cooperation, explaining China's compromies in tdrritorial disputes (2005)]
[Albert B.Wolf and M.Taylor Fravel, Correspondence: Structural Sources of China's territorial compromises (2006)]
[Daniel Gomà Pinilla, Border disputes between China and North Korea, March-April 2004]
[William Burr, The Sino-Soviet border conflict, U.S. reactions and diplomatic maneuvers, June 12, 2001]

kaarten - buurlanden [zhoubian guojia: ditu]
[surrounding nations]
[Political map of Asia]
[resources & maps]
[Carte de l' Asie]
[L'Asie - carte de localisation]
[Azimuthal Equal-Area Projection Map]
[China-USRR Border, Eastern Section]
[maps showing geology, oil and gas fields, and geological provinces of the Asia Pacific region]

wereldkaarten [shijie ditu]
[physical map of the world]
[political map of the world]
[world atlas & map library]
China map showing the Peoples Republic of China on a globe view of Earth]
[Matt Rosenberg, Physical geography and cultural geography]
[Max Fisher, 40 maps that explain the world, August 12, 2013]

Totale oppervlakte: ± 9,6 millioen km2; grootste afstand noord-zuid ± 4050 km, oost-west: ± 5000 km

Totale bevolkingsaantal ± 1,30 miljard, 49% van het vrouwelijke en 51% van het mannelijke geslacht;
92% behorend tot de Han-nationaliteit, 8% tot 55 andere nationaliteiten, de zgn 'nationale minderheden'.
Ondanks de 1-kind politiek een aanzienlijke jaarlijkse bevolkingsaanwas, zie:

China population information and news & ticking population clock
[China population clock]
[China population clock]
[world clock]
[curent world population]

de stamvaders van de Han-Chinezen waren Afrikanen (of toch niet?)
[African Origin of Modern Humans in East Asia: A Tale of 12,000 Y Chromosomes, & tables, references and footnotes, May 11, 2001]
[Y chromosome evidence of earliest modern human settlement in East Asia and multiple orgigins of Tibetan and Japanese populations, October 2008]
[Zhoukoudian Peking Man Reconstruction]
[The Peking Man World Heritage Site at Zhoukoudian]
[Hominid fossil sites and patterns of hominid dispersal, & map Migration of Homo sapiens (1997)]
[100.000-year-old human skull found (in Henan); January 2008]
[digging for clues of nation's origin; January 15, 2001]
[The Takla Makan mummies; October 2000]
[Scientists find genetic evidence for southern origin of modern humans in East Asia, July 27, 2005]
[Jiazhen Tan, Genetic relationship of populations in China, September 29, 1998]

waar komen de mensen vandaan? en waar gaan ze heen?
[Stephen Hawking, Origin of the Universe, Leuven, October 25, 2011 (video)]
[Origin of the Universe - Stephen Hawking (video, 1 of 5), & related videos]
[Origins of the universe: Stephen Hawking's J.Robert oppenheimer Lecture, March 13, 2007]
[Donald F.Beaumont, How the earth's geology determined human history, Sino-Platonic Papers number 2003, June 2010]
[Michael D.Lemonick, Andrea Dorfman, Up from the apes, Remarkable new evidence is filling in the story of how we became human, January 17, 2000]
[About Chimpanzees - So like us! watch the video of human-chimpanzees analogues]
[Ardipithecus ramidus: iUnderstanding human origins: editorial, news focus, introduction, research articles (Science, 2 October issue, 2009)]
[Max Ingman, Mitochondrial DNA Clarifies Human Evolution, May   2001]
[meet your relatives: chimpanzee, homo sapiens, homo neanderthalensis]
[Friedrich Engels, De rol van de arbeid in de overgang van aap naar mens (1876), vertaling Jeron Theunissen]
[Friedrich Engels, Anteil der Arbeit an de Menschwerdung des Affen]
[On the Origin of Species by Means of natural selection, or the Preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life,
by Charles Darwin, London: John Murray, Albemarle Street, 1859]
[On the Origin of Species by Means of natural selection, first edition
[Charles-Robert Darwin (1809-1882), La descendance de l’homme et la sélection sexuelle. Traduit de l’Anglais par Edmond Barbier d’après la seconde édition anglaise revue et augmentée par l’auteur, 1876]
[Ape to Man, Evolution Documentary Hisoty Channel, April 18, 2014]
[On Human Origin, Encyclical by Pope Pius XII on the theories of the origin of man, August 12, 1950]
[Conferenza stampa di presentazione del convegno internazionale, Biological evolution: facts and theories. A critical
appraisal 150 years after the ' Origin of Species', Roma, 3-7 Marzo 2009; September 16, 2008]
[Pontifical Gregorian University, III STOQ International Conference, Biological Evolution: facts and theories. A critical appraisal 150 years after the ' Origin of Species', Rome, 3-7 March 2009]
[Jochen Fahrenberg, Menschenbilder, Psychologische, biologische, interkulturelle und religiöse Ansichten (e-Buch 2007)
[70 percent of British related to Egyptian pharao Tutankhamen; August 2, 2011]
[Wouter Verbeylen, Homo, 24 juni 2015]
[Teilhardina belgica]
[clues to alien life]
[Humanity's last invention, November 25, 2012]

Voor info over de weerslag van de geologische gesteldheid op de economie en de bevolkingsdichtheid, zie:
kaart vruchtbaarheid van de grond:
kaart gewassen:
kaart bevolkingsdichtheid:
kaart infrastructuur:
kaart bodemreliëf:
kaarten, algemeen:

Talen: het Mandarijn-Chinees, gebaseerd op het Beijing-dialect, dat zich als 'nationale taal' opwerpt, het Kantonees van
zuidelijk China (inclusief Hong Kong), het Wu van Shanghai, en de talen van de 'nationale minderheden'.

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© 2002-2016 Jacoba J.H.M.Hanenburg